BOOK | Blue Window | A Food Journey into the Past via Europe’s High Peaks and River Valleys | Switzerland (Geneva) & France (Bonneville)

Rousseau de Poulet Chaud and Quantum Perspectives

Once upon a time students bought hot chicken and sat under the statue of the great man consuming their lunch with hardly a thought about the wise words he passed down to us. In the 1990s a fast-food fad caught on in supermarkets close to railway stations across western Europe – whole hot roast chicken. Generally it was good everywhere, except for one place – the Manor supermarket on the Rue Rousseau, not far from the gaze of the great philosopher – where it was exceptional, full of flavour, succulent … and greasy.

Hand napkins?

Rousseau, in quiet contemplation, never seemed to disapprove, even when you wiped your hands in the snow under this gaze. It was a running joke that when you bought hot chicken you were never served hand napkins at the chicken counter, you were expected to supply them yourself.

So we are disappointed to learn that the Manor no longer has hot chicken. That would have made a nice start to this wonderful journey.

Rousseau saw the future when he lived in the Duchy of Savoy. He predicted the potential for Geneva and the hinterland. Now that the whole region has been shrunk by the Léman public transport system, it must be said this was obvious.

We are having these philosophical thoughts because we can imagine what Rousseau would say about a railway tunnel underneath the city of his birth and a giant particle collider in the foothills of his youth. ‘I am intrigued by your perspectives, none reconcile our condition.’

Time to travel to the terroir?

Of course!

First though a diversion into space and time. We are taking the number 18 purple line tram to CERN and having philosophical thoughts.

Zone 10

Philosophy has been the preserve of the elites ever since the ancient Greeks decided that humanity should have a principled code of ethics. Generally these ethics are grounded in beliefs and morals and motives whereas modern ethics about existence and knowledge including imagination and will are disputed. There is also disagreement about conscience when it is conditioned by irrational reason. So, just for the benefit of the argument about our inability to gather positive knowledge about the mistakes we keep repeating throughout history, we have constructed a fictional dialogue on the subjects of living and dying, being and nothing, sense and nonsense and of course evolution, the origins of life and quantum reality.

What else would you do on a tram ride up a hill into that reality?

Iris Murdoch: ‘What are you afraid of Monsieur Rousseau?’

Jean-Jacques Rousseau: ‘Madame, I am not afraid.’

Iris Murdoch: ‘Is that the truth?’

Jean-Jacques Rousseau: ‘Yes madame I do not trade in follies, there is nothing to be afraid of in life.’

Iris Murdoch: ‘Are you not afraid of death?’

Jean-Jacques Rousseau: ‘No madame, I am not afraid of dying, death is the natural end, it is living I fear.’

Iris Murdoch: ‘You say there is nothing to fear in life, now you say you are afraid of living, is that not a contradiction?’

Jean-Jacques Rousseau: ‘Madame you take my words and distort them. I am afraid because I exist and I have feelings.’

Iris Murdoch: ‘You do not wish to exist?’

Jean-Jacques Rousseau: ‘I exist to survive, that is the natural way. I fear my own sensibilities. I must follow them faithfully.’

Iris Murdoch: ‘Even if they lead you into danger?’

Jean-Jacques Rousseau: ‘My feelings direct me, wherever they decide to go.’

Jean Paul Sartre: ‘Don’t you mean your instincts?’

Jean-Jacques Rousseau: ‘No monsieur.’

Jean Paul Sartre: ‘Feelings are different to instincts.’

Jean-Jacques Rousseau: ‘That is an obvious statement monsieur.’

Jean Paul Sartre: ‘Perhaps it is your intuition you refer to?’

Jean-Jacques Rousseau: ‘No monsieur, it is my feelings.’

Arthur Schopenhauer: ‘I think monsieur Rousseau is talking about will.’

Jean-Jacques Rousseau: ‘That would be correct!’

Arthur Schopenhauer: ‘Birds and animals have instinct, humans and primates have consciousness. Our consciousness is the highest yet you would not know this by our behaviour.

Iris Murdoch: ‘Your pessimism defines you.’

Arthur Schopenhauer: ‘You have the advantage of knowing my work whereas I do not know your work. I am a realist.’

Jean Paul Sartre: ‘I am also a realist.’

Iris Murdoch: ‘You are an existentialist.’

Usama Ibn Munqidh: ‘Everyone of you is an infidel (may God have mercy on you all), why have I been brought here, where are we?’

Jean Paul Sartre: ‘There is no God … ‘

Usama Ibn Munqidh: ‘I am enlightened. There is no God but God. I would not be here if it was not willed.’

Germaine Greer: ‘I agree. However, we are not here to discuss God, may I remind you we are here to answer a question: why do we repeat our mistakes?’

Joni Mitchell: ‘We are twins of spirit, we are within and without, we cannot reconcile this irrational lifestyle.’

Germaine Greer: ‘Each of us live in the fires of our minds, unable to extinguish the sources. We are destined to repeat our mistakes because we do not learn from them. We cling like aphids to practices that are inhuman and insane, based on prejudice and superstition.’

Joni Mitchell: ‘We are captive on the carousel of time, we cannot return, we can only look behind. It has never been easy whether you travel the breadth of extremities … ‘

Germaine Greer: ‘ … or take a straighter line, or to quote you “chicken scratching for my immortality”.’

Jean Paul Sartre: ‘Absolutely! There is being … ‘

Usama Ibn Munqidh: ‘ … and there is fate (God have mercy). The duration of life can neither be hastened nor delayed, we cannot escape fate’s inscrutability.’

Germaine Greer: ‘We are not here to talk about fate or distraction … ‘

Jean Jacques Rousseau: ‘I am intrigued by your perspectives, none reconcile our condition. We are here … ‘

Arthur Schopenhauer: ‘ … to answer a question none of us can answer because we are unable to agree. We have inbred prejudices. Is this not the reason for our failure to answer the question?

Jean Paul Sartre: ‘We do nothing more than exist, everything else is futile!’

Usama Ibn Munqidh: ‘We are fated!’

Joni Mitchell: ‘We are cosmic dust.’

Usama Ibn Munqidh: ‘We are the will of God!’

Perky the Hen (in a screechy chicken voice, translated): ‘We are all full of shite.’

Voice of Omniscience: ‘It is neither one thing nor the other, it is becoming omniscient and when humanity realises it can reach the highest level of consciousness, only then can its prejudices be released. Humanity must become compassionate, empathetic, humble, immanent and sensible in each moment, it must calm the ego, control its maliciousness and inform the will.’

Perky the Hen (angry squawking): ‘More philosophical nonsense!’

Richard Dawkins: ‘Changing the subject somewhat, one of the things I worry about, about physics is that it is counter-intuitive and so totally weird, and I am reconciled to the fact that my brain and everybody else’s brain is a product of Darwinian natural selection designed to understand how to catch prey, find water-holes, make tools, avoid being eaten, survive in a world of medium sized objects moving at medium speeds, so our brains were never equipped to deal with things that move near the speed of light, very small things like quanta.’

Lawrence M. Krauss: ‘With quantum mechanics there is no intuition, there is no picture that allows for quantum mechanics to make sense and this means you can never trust your intuition, particles doing many things at the same time … until you measure them and there is no way of understanding that. One of the great things about science is that it gets us out of our own myopic picture of reality, that what we want to be true isn’t necessarily true. We may not like the way the universe works but the universe doesn’t give a damn.’

Richard Dawkins: ‘Of course there is a temptation to say that quantum theory is unintuitive and difficult to understand. Oriental mysticism is incredibility difficult, therefore they have got something to do with each other. Nonsense! The predictions of quantum theory, no matter how difficult to understand, are prodigiously accurate. Evolution through natural selection is a slow gradual incremental process. Complicated things like us are put together by embryonic processes following little local rules.

Lawrence M. Krauss: Look the universe is complicated but there are these basic simple local rules. At this point it is too complex to predict in advance the three-dimensional structure.

Richard Dawkins: ‘It is about doing the right thing … the problems of the origins of life have probably got easier, some of the raw materials are known to be there. Self replication is the single step that gets natural selection going. That’s what genes do.’

Perky the Hen (screeching): ‘Yeah right, we still have our claws. We need them for scratching, we too need to eat!’

Seriously though it could be argued that humanity is in this dilemma because it has not resolved the issues that encumber its true nature. Philosophers generally agree that people exhibit the characteristics of compassion, ego and malice in various degrees, exist in an illusionary state that is not informed and attempt to engineer ways of escape into immortality. We are told this is human nature and that it cannot truly be understood without knowledge of metaphysics – the nature of existence, the nature of the universe (now radically different at the quantum level), the nature of knowledge, the nature of will.

It is the latter that has caused dissent among philosophers. Will without knowledge and imagination is a treacherous beast whereas will with knowledge and imagination is a quixotic creation. As individuals, despite various belief systems once designed to educate and inform, we struggle with the moral perception now inherent in our collective inability to change our destructive lifestyles. It would appear that most of humanity cannot fathom the depth of the dilemma because it is unable to grasp the implicit reality without compassion, concern, empathy and judgement and the imagination to shape such feelings into actions.

Our perceptions of reality are distorted because most of us are taught at a young age the wrong information and instead of an understanding of the planet as a living entity we see everything in it as a resource to be exploited in a ludicrous survival of the fittest competition with the next generation ready to take its place in the race, and on and on, nothing learned. This warped morality has led us into this dilemma, now we are trapped without a compass, moralistic or otherwise, to lead us out.

In his study of the old pagan religions, Ralph Metzner argued that humanity lost its precognitive and telepathic abilities when its communion with the natural world was deliberately destroyed. Those with special states of consciousness were also alienated. That the development of consciousness should now embrace a sensibility once more in tune with the cosmos is pertinent. It would seem that scientific transcendence is the pathway toward immanence. Why, you ask, did it take so long? Have we really evolved? You might say that some of us have and the majority of us have not, that most of humanity is still trapped in the dark night of their captured consciousness.

Pure Immanence author Gilles Deleuze described an immanent life as singularities actualised in subjects and objects, in other words in absolute knowledge. Immanency – being and knowing – might therefore be described as quantum consciousness! To feel everything at the quantum level would require subconscious mechanisms that absorb information and, using imagination, memory and thought, develop intuition.

Roger Penrose and Stuart Hameroff believe consciousness has what might be called quantum coherence, channelled through devices called microtubules that reside inside brain neurones to orchestrate and stimulate conscious awareness. Among others Dawkins believes there is mystery in the way the human brain functions while the scientific community does what it has always done, agree to disagree. However Penrose and Hameroff are not the first intellectuals to believe that raised consciousness is attainable with stimulated awareness.

Teilhard de Chardin suggested that humanity, raised to a ‘state of complexity and consciousness,’ would be unable to achieve its final equilibrium until it became natural, ‘organically and psychically indivisible’. Later he wondered whether humanity would fall ‘out of love with its own destiny’ and fail in its attempt to achieve a heightened level of consciousness.

It could be argued this is where humanity is now. Despite heightened awareness and the haughty suggestion of intelligence, humanity has not shaken off its prejudices, apparently content to exist in a state of belief and non-belief with the consequent state of permanent conflict and persecution.

To say we need a good guide is obvious. That guide is nothing grand, it is not a big media event, it is nothing more simple than reality and the fact that nothing is predetermined because we now know, unlike the ancient Greeks, how the universe works. It is not magic.

Small truly is beautiful, smaller is sublime and just because you cannot see them does not mean the particles that design and inform the universe are not there … nor even here nor anywhere in a moment in time.

Welcome to the world of the European Council for Nuclear Research (in French Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire — CERN) where the secrets of the universe and ultimately the reality of all life is slowly being revealed. We would love to tell you more but life cannot exist without sustenance and in this moment the story of the indigenous foods and traditional dishes of Europe’s mountain pastures and river valleys is more than relevant, it is necessary.

Anyway food and philosophy and quantum realities have always been good companions. They are on this trip, believe us!

Léman Express

Rendezvous with Rousseau

We have gone off on a tangent to get answers to a question trapped in time. We are in the park of Vincennes searching for an oak tree we know we won’t find, wondering about clues that might provide answers to questions about a sensibility now engrained in society.

Whether it is the wonderful words and iconic recipes of someone like master chef Stanislaw Czerniecki or the wise words and erudite philosophies of a man like the master encyclopedist Denis Diderot we wonder whether we should pay more attention to this phenomena or whether we should look closer at the consequences of five events – in Florence in 1512, in Vincennes in 1749, in Ballykilcline in 1846, in Crete in 1953 and in Frammi við Gjónna in 2011 – and conclude that food and time are incompatible companions.

Now, in this moment in time, we should make an effort to find the location of that tree, the apparent scene of a eureka moment that changed the life of the young Jean-Jacques Rousseau. We have walked from a parking area at the eastern edge of the park onto a path frequented by amblers, runners, strollers and walkers into the heart of the park where the former ‘royal avenue’ has been parched into a delightful sandy sheen by the forgetful Parisian sun. Dappled light penetrates the canopy alongside the paths on both sides of the avenue. All the trees are young creatures with few memories to share.
We back-track to the heartland of the park where seven paths meet. The path we want is number seven clockwise from the northern side of the avenue. We count the paths and turn onto what we hope is the right path. A short walk further along we encounter a ring of seasoned trunks, each about six metres long, one has been sculpted into a design that is probably ironic or has a message that is lost on us. No ancient oak to be seen, not even a stump. If it was here it is now gone, removed from sight after the devastation of 1999 when Vincennes felt the force of Storm Lothar.

To be honest this is what we expected, yet there is mystery.

Vincennes has been wooded since the forest of Vilcena became the property of the crown in the 1100s. Louis VII developed the architecture, Philip Auguste developed the woodland and built a manor on the site of the present château. By the 1300s Charles V developed the dungeon, high towers and a new chapel. In the late 1400s Louis XI ordered the planting of 3000 oak trees to replace woodland cut earlier in the century. By the late 1700s, following oak plantation programmes by successive kings, Vincennes had become a designed woodland with avenues, paths and roads, open to the public. The monarchy and entourage had gone to Versailles.

Denis Diderot had the misfortune to find himself in the dungeons of the castle on July 24, 1749 at the age of 35 despite a growing reputation as an enlightened man of letters that apparently meant nothing to the authorities and the monarchy. He would remain at Vincennes until November 3. A slight man with a narrow face, a warm smile and knowledgeable eyes, Diderot became a clever novelist, an astute philosopher, a brave art critic and a remarkable scholar. By the time he had finished the encyclopedia, he had produced 35 volumes. Now known as a major protagonist of the ‘romantic’ era, in his lifetime he was not given the recognition he believed he deserved. During his imprisonment he was visited by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, a fellow ‘man of letters’ from Geneva. In his Confessions, Rousseau described the day of this visit.

‘On my return to Paris, I received the agreeable news that Diderot had been released from the dungeon, and confined to the château and park of Vincennes on parole, with permission to see his friends. How painful it was to me not to be able to run to him on the spot because Vincennes is one hour distant from Paris. Although the summer was excessively hot and, being unable to afford a conveyance, I set out at two o’clock in the afternoon on foot. I walked fast to get there sooner. The trees on the road, always lopped after the fashion of the country, hardly afforded any shade and often, exhausted by heat and fatigue, I threw myself on the ground, being unable to walk any further. I rested a while until my strength came back. I moderated my pace by reading the Mercure de France. While I walked I came upon the subject proposed by the Academy of Dijon as a prize essay: has the progress of the arts and sciences contributed more to the corruption or purification of morals? From the moment I read these words, I beheld another universe and became another man. If ever anything resembled a sudden inspiration, it is what that advertisement stimulated in me. All at once I felt my mind dazzled by a thousand lights, a crowd of splendid ideas presented them to me with such force and in such confusion that I was thrown into a state of indescribable bewilderment. I felt my head seized by a dizziness that resembled intoxication. A violent palpitation constricted me and made my chest heave. Unable to breathe and walk at the same time, I sank down under one of the oak trees in the avenue, passed the next half hour in such a state of agitation that when I got up I found that the front of my jacket was wet with tears, although I had no memory of shedding any. If ever I had been able to write down what I saw and felt as I sat under that tree, with what clarity would I have exposed the contradictions of our social system, with what force would I have demonstrated all the abuses of our institutions, with what simplicity would I have demonstrated that man is naturally good, and has only become bad because of those institutions.’

When Rousseau explained his eureka episode to Diderot, his friend encouraged him to write the essay. Rousseau took the prize. Six years later he would write his ‘Origin and Foundation of the Inequality of Mankind’ and made what was seen as a remarkable statement.

‘From the moment one man needed the help of another, as soon as they observed that it was useful for a single person to have provisions for two, equality disappeared, property was introduced, labour became necessary; and vast forests were changed into smiling fields which had to be watered with the sweat of men, and in which slavery and misery were soon seen to germinate and grow with the crops.’

Contemporary food archaeologists would probably agree, now that they know a little more about the decision to leave behind the hunting and gathering tradition that had apparently defined humanity up to that point. Sedentism was gradual after the last ice-age, a trickle of rain-water along a natural furrow in rutted ground. Eventually it became a torrent after 8000 years of foraging, herding, hunting and planting when the pressure to settle became inevitable – apparently!

The rest is a history that is changing with every precise movement of a tool that unearths more of the secrets of the past. Over 5000 years of unimaginable misery followed for those who had the misfortune to be born in the fertile crescents of the world. Archaeologist Steven Mithen described the reality. ‘From the very start of farming, food had become a commodity, a source of wealth and power for those who controlled its distribution.’

He wondered.

‘Are the delights of the microscope, the thoughts of Darwin, the poetry of Shakespeare and the advances of medical science, sufficient recompense for the environmental degradation, social conflict and human suffering that ultimately derive from the origin of farming 10,000 years ago? Would it have been better if we had remained as Stone Age hunter-gatherers forsaking the development of literature and science?’

Rousseau did not know what Mithen and other archaeologists know today, and yet he knew enough to make the Academy of Dijon sit up and take notice. However it was his friend Diderot who summed it up when he addressed his sharp mind to the irony behind the collective consequence of giving up hunter-gathering for a settled lifestyle.

‘Humanity had learned how to cook!’

For us it is back to reality, back in the Alps, the beginning of a journey into the past!

A Scary Story

The departure screen at the shiny new station in Annemasse on the French-Swiss border appears to have an anomaly. It is half past nine in the evening, the darkness is down, bright lights puncture the night, and we are standing like fools in a fairground waiting for the merry-go-round to start again to allow us to continue our journey. This is the entrance to the Arve River Valley where the river winds its way into Geneva to join the Rhône at the Viaduc de la Jonction. The water is flowing one way and we want to go the other way to Bonneville (pronounced bon veal). 

Our merry-go-round has taken us from Friedrichshafen on the German shore of Lake Constanz, the Bodensee in Germany, to Romanshorn with stops at Weinfelden with the Alps in view at Luzern in central Switzerland, across the mountains at Interlaken Ost under the gaze of the majestic Eiger face into the central plateau with its fields of gold at Bern, down past lake Neuchatel into the Lac Léman basin at Lausanne, alongside the lake with its rows of vines for the stop at Cornavin, now a new transport hub in Geneva, into the new railway tunnels under the city and into the plain at Annemasse. 

We ponder a question to a security guard. ‘Trains to Saint Gervais, there are none on the board?’

‘The last train has gone, at five past nine.’


‘Don’t know about the buses, don’t think there is one.’

He has a sympathetic sad look, by contrast we are crestfallen, standing with our luggage and a resigned reality, hotel or taxi.

There is a new Novotel down the street, built obviously for this purpose. We talk to three taxi drivers.

Anne whispers, ‘fifty for a taxi ride, what do you think?’ The driver is knowledgeable. ‘Eighty!’



Anne is off to find a cash machine. ‘I’ll ask in the Novotel,’ she says without confidence.

The taxi drivers engage. ‘Novotel is expensive, €120.’

‘How much?’

Anne is back. ‘I tried to negotiate, she said she had no power.’

It was more than €120 and now we know, we are going into the night in a taxi.

‘I have a booking,’ the first driver says. The second wants cash, the third says, ‘I have card machine.’

We load up and head into a sat-nav assisted night, passing through two tolls, which add four euros to the fare. It is €84!

Now we have a problem. We are in the centre of Bonneville and we have to find a key that is hidden in a box in the depths of the apartment complex where our home for a week is located.

Anne prevails and we find ourselves at midnight, wide eyed and wide awake. Wow, what a journey. Who said the Léman transport system would make travel into France easier than it has been for the past decade?

We have a plan.

Pleasant Valley Someday

La Roche-sur-Foron is the gateway into the traditional food of the entire region. Whatever way you turn there is an alpine world of enigmatic cuisine defined by the products of the boucherie, the boulangerie, the charcuterie, the fromagerie. Alpine France is a cornucopia of cured, dried and smoked meat products, of countless cheeses, of fruits and herbs and nuts and spices and leaf and root vegetables.

They come together in savoury dishes like berthoud (cheese bakes), crozets (pasta squares), diots avec pommes de terre (smoked pork sausages with potatoes), farcement (potato loaf with bacon, dried fruit and spices), Savoyard fondue (cheese sauce) and tartiflette, a cheese and potato connoction made with Reblochon, one of the raw milk cheeses that define this region.

The thought of them is mouth-watering because we desperately want to know and taste these dishes. Yet they are not apparent on the restaurant menus. Yes the ingredients to make these dishes are available in the shops that specialise in the traditional food of the region and in the supermarkets, Carrefour, Intermarche and Fresh. Where are the restaurants that serve these dishes? We are finding a sad refrain, in the world of fast food and instant gratification, traditional dishes are a product of the past, wherever you go, and it is always difficult to find places that specialise in genuine traditional cuisine.

Here at La Roche-sur-Foron we must make a decision – remain on our Léman Express train for a ride along the single track railway to Annecy or exit to a bus that will take us straight up into the mountains.

In the sky above us is a pleasant plateau where they make one of the most delicious cheeses in the world ­– Val de Thônes, spiritual home of the creamy cheese known as Reblochon.

The story of this cheese was legendary before it became popular. A long time ago the monks of Abondance monastery in the high mountains above Lac Léman created pastures in the Chablais valley, then developed a breed of cow that would produce high quantities of milk, to allow them to make cheese. This Alpine cheese was served at high table in Avignon during the period when the popes reigned in the 1300s. At this time farmers were obliged to pay tax based on the volume of milk produced. To pay less tax farmers in the Thônes valley partially milked their cows, then secretly went back to collect the milk used for cheese. This became known as the re-blocher method, pinching the udder a second time. Reblochon is formed into 500 gram, 450 gram and 230 gram rounds. Delicately arranged on thin circles of spruce, it is the essential ingredient for several traditional dishes, and we want to know why Reblochon Fermier has more taste than Reblochon Fruitier.

Our ultimate destination is Le Farto, Cooperative du Reblochon Fermier in Thônes. This is where the cow herders make Reblochon with raw milk from their own farm, fermier, compared to fruitier, which is made with milk collected from several farms. On the plateau called Solaison there is an old fruitière where farmers brought their milk for collection, time standing still.

We figured we could get a Proxim iTi (proximity route) bus to Saint-Jean-de-Sixt and change for Thônes. The timetable says we can, it also says we cannot get back in one day and staying overnight just to pick up a few rounds of cheese and talk cheese to the people is probably excessive. If we do that for every food item on this trip it will be never ending.

The answer is a vaguely remembered comment. ‘If you want cheese go to the House of Cheese …’

‘… in Bonneville.’

Ironic isn’t it, we have just come from Bonneville. We abandon the idea of Thônes via Annecy because we know that will be a trip too far.

La Maison du Fromage is a short walk from the railway station.

We take the Arve river path and cut inside onto the narrow Rue Crève Cœur into Avenue de Genève, the cheese country pastures Glières and Solaison in the near distance above us. We lament and walk on.

Housed in a large wooden chalet it is more than we expected.

It is cheese nirvana.

A giant tub filled with Reblochon and wide shelves filled with the round mountain cheeses of France and Switzerland greet us in an area beyond the front door.

Abondance Fermier, Beaufort D’été, Chevrotin, Emmental de Savoie, Grataron du Beaufortain, Reblochon de Savoie, Tome des Bauges Fermiere, Tomme de Montagne and Raclette – all the cheeses we covet and desire.

And there staring us in the face is the one we want, a 450 gram round of Reblochon Fermier from Le Farto de Thônes!

Le Canard de Foie Gras

Bonneville greets us with its street market. And we are just in time, and lucky. Our sojourn to La Roche-sur-Foron and excursion to the house of cheese has taken us past noon, the stall-holders are packing up and there won’t be another market for a week, when we will be gone.

Walking back to our apartment we spy a store with assorted jars and tins that obviously contain food of some kind. What? We enter and begin to look.


Blue Window | Switzerland (pre-Alps)

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