Ingredient | European Flour

Flours
L-R – Gluten-Free Flour from Switzerland, Polish t-550 Flour, Chestnut Flour from Italy, Polish t-450 and Rye Flour from Switzerland

 

 

In Europe hard and soft wheats are used to produce bread, cakes and pastries.

Durum wheat is used to produce pasta and semolina.

Spelt is used largely to make dumplings and noodles, and gradually now to make bread, cakes and pastries.

Rye is used to make bread and pastries.

France, Germany, Poland, Switzerland and Turkey grade their flour according to the amount of ash, measured in milligrams, obtained from burning, the French with 10g of flour, the Germans and Swiss with 100g.

This indicates the gluten content. Hard wheat flour is high (between 11% and 13%), soft wheat is low (between 9% and 11%).

This translates as:

White flour (high gluten), for bread – for example French type 65, German type 812.

Pastry flour (medium), for all purposes, French 45, German 405.

Baking flour (medium), for bread and pastries, French 55.

Cake flour (low), for biscuits and cakes.

These are the types of flour available in France, Germany, Italy and Switzerland.

 

 

France

 

 

Type 45
Soft wheat white flour for pastry. 
Low gluten.

Type 55
Hard and soft wheat white flour for general use. 
Low gluten.

Type 65
Hard and soft wheat white flour for artisan use. 
High gluten.

Type 80
Hard organic whole wheat and white flour for bread. 
High gluten.

Type 110
Hard whole wheat and white flour for bread. 
High gluten.

Type 150
Hard whole wheat flour, bran and germ. 
High gluten.

 

Germany

 

Type 405
Soft wheat white flour for pastry. 
Low gluten.

Type 550
Hard and soft wheat white flour for general use. 
Low gluten.

Type 630
White spelt flour. 
High gluten.

Type 812
Hard wheat white flour for bread. 
High gluten.

Type 1050
Hard wheat flour for bread. 
High gluten.

Type 1150
Rye flour. 
Low gluten. 

Type 1600
Hard whole wheat and white flour for bread. 
High gluten.

Type 1700
Whole wheat flour, bran and germ. 
High gluten.

 

 

Switzerland

 

OrganicSpelt
Irish organic spelt and that aphid eater … again!

 

 

The Swiss grade their flour for specific breads, cakes, confections and pastries and sell it as prepared combinations.

If you want to make a high energy bread you buy a packet of ‘Fitness Meal’ containing shredded wheat (type 1700), crushed rye and wheat bran, wheat flour with flakes (type 900), rye flour (type 720), wheat, oat and barley flakes, vegetable oils and fats (partially hydrogenated), skimmed milk powder, salt with iodine, pre-gelatinised wheat flour, corn flour, dextrose, lactic acid, and sorbitol.

If you want to replicate the delicious rye bread of the Valais/Wallis canton you buy a packet of ‘Walliser Flour Fix’ containing rye flour (type 700), wheat flour (type 1100), salt with iodine, pea fibre, lactic acid, roasted wheat, wheat gluten, sugar, caramel and barley malt.

 

Type 400: Soft wheat white flour.
Type 550: Hard and soft wheat white flour.
Type 600: Spelt flour.
Type 700: Rye flour.
Type 700: Light rye flour.
Type 720: Hard whole wheat and white flour.
Type 720: Rye flour.
Type 720: Hard wheat flour.
Type 750: Spelt flour.
Type 800: Light rye flour.
Type 900: Hard whole wheat flour.
Type 990: Rye flour.
Type 990: Light rye flour.
Type 1100: Dark rye flour.
Type 1100: Hard wheat flour.
Type 1200: Rye flour.
Type 1250: Dark rye flour.
Type 1500: Spelt flour.
Type 1500: Hard wheat flour.
Type 1600: Spelt flour.
Type 1700: Shredded wheat.
Type 1800: Graham flour.
Type 1800: Rye flour fine.
Type 1900: Spelt flour.
Type 1900: Rye flour.
Type 1900: Whole grain rye flour.
Type 1900: Hard stone ground wholemeal flour.
Type 1900: Hard wholemeal flour.

 

 

Italy

 

 

ArnaldoCavallari'sCiabattaFlours
Arnaldo Cavallari’s Ciabatta Flours

 

 

Italian flour is milled from soft wheat, known by 00, 0, 1, 2 and integrale.

Types 00 and 0 are now available with different degrees of strength, denoted by the range 90W to 400W (see W chart). The higher values indicate higher gluten.

Types 1 and 2 have small percentages of bran, integrale is the whole wheat. Strong white flour from Canada, sold as Manitoba, has become popular, adding gluten to flour mixes.

Semolina from durum wheat is combined with hard wheat flour to make pasta.

 

Grano Duro
Hard wheat, for bread and pasta.

Grano Tenero 00
Soft wheat white flour, fine ground 
(see W chart for gluten strength and uses).

Grano Tenero 0
Soft wheat white flour, 
(see W chart for gluten strength and uses).

Grano Tenero 1
Soft wheat white flour, bran, for bread.

Grano Tenero 2
Soft wheat flour, bran and germ, for bread.

Grano Tenero Integrale
Whole soft wheat flour, bran and germ.

Manitoba (Canada)
Hard wheat.

Semolino
Coarse ground from durum wheat.

Semola di Grano Duro Rimacinata
Fine ground from durum wheat, for bread and pasta.

 

 

W Chart

 

90-130W: biscuits.
130-200W: breadsticks, crackers.
170-200W: biscuits, bread, cakes, focaccia, pastries, pizza.
220-240W: baguettes, ciabatta, 
dough with six hour fermentation.
300-310W: pastries, 
dough with 15 hour fermentation.
340-400W: brioche, croissants, panettone, 
dough with 15+ hour fermentation.

 

Domestic 00 and 0 sold in supermarkets ranges from 170-200W so it needs to be strengthened for use in Italian bread dough. Adapted from Professor Franco Antoniazzi, University of Parma, reported by Dario Bressanini.

 

Other European Flours

 

Millers across Europe use the ash system to grade their flours. The Polish type 450 is used for cakes and pastries. Type 750 is a high-gluten bread flour. The Turkish types 550 and 650 are all-purpose flours for bread rolls, for pitta and pouch breads, for pasta and thin pastry dough. Type 850 is a high-gluten bread flour. Elsewhere the system is the same: a low number means low gluten, a high number high gluten. Low is light flour, high is dark flour.

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