Category: FRICOT

Food Stories | Boxty is Back and Other Potato Revolutions

Sausage, onion sauce and potatoes – a Swiss tradition.

The potato changed the European landscape. For many it was subsistence food – feast or famine. In the low countries, in Germany, Poland, Ukraine, in the Baltic states, in Russia, in Scandinavia, in the islands of the Atlantic fringe, in central Europe, in the Balkans … the potato became the dominant crop, changing everything.

We can see today the impact of the potato on traditional food. A protein package, it symbolised working life by providing energy and well-being in every imaginable kind of form.

The potato was baked, boiled, cooked, fried, mashed, powdered, stewed, stuffed and sautéed. It produced national dishes in many countries, and replaced standard ingredients in traditional dishes.

Now it is used as a filling for countless breads and pastries, such as štruklji, the strudels of Slovenia. It is used a thickener in soups, such as the French bouillabaisse, the Finnish lohikeitto, the Greek psarósoupa, the Monasque l’estocafic, the Irish chowder and the Scottish cullen skink. It is used as an bulking and thickening agent for stews, such as the chickpeas and meat stew of Spain, the veal and vegetable stews of the Austrian and Italian alps and the steppes of Ukraine. It is used in pastries and pies, and in omelettes and pancakes.

But for all these uses, perhaps the mashed and puréed versions are the most versatile, because they become the ingredient for griddle cakes and farls, and for countless preparations.

The griddle pancakes
of Norway.

Paul Farrelly of Killeshandra was 19 when he got laid off from the building sites. It was the boat for England or boxty for Ireland. He decided to stay and now, four decades later, he has a thriving business making and selling boxty to shops in Cavan, Leitrim and Longford, and via Musgraves of Cork to various Centra and Super Value outlets around the country.

He says it was one of those little accidents of life. Accident or not, to make a success of an artisan food business in the early 1980s required more than providence.

His mother Nan, who ran a home bakery, provided the expertise and skill, and away they went grating and squeezing floury kerrs pinks to make a boiled boxty rooted in the tradition of west Cavan life.

Boxty has been a traditional food in the north-western counties for a very long time. There is an association with halloween and the late crop of the year. Its similarity with the Swiss pan-fried grated potatoes and with the potato dumplings of the Baltic countries may be coincidental, or not.

Farrelly believes credit for its longevity should go to the mother of invention and those intrepid home cooks, who always found ways to use left-over potatoes from the daily pot, and refused to throw out bad potatoes, cutting off and grating the good bits for various uses. Mixing raw and cooked potatoes is not unique to Ireland. Baking floured potato cakes on a griddle and boiling potato dumplings are traditions in numerous European countries where the potato was a subsistence crop.

Farrelly is glad boxty now has a profile. In 1983 boxty was an enigma. It was known in west Cavan, Leitrim, Longford, parts of Mayo and in north Roscommon but not in east Cavan or Monaghan or the rest of the country.

When he tried to sell their boxty, one woman queried him. ‘Why would I want to buy your boxty, when I make my own?’

But Farrelly and Nan persevered, buying custom made equipment from a factory in Broughshane in county Antrim, and very gradually Drummully Boxty was established.

By refining the traditional method and by using good rooster potatoes from county Meath, Farrelly and his mother created a business that now employs three people, keeping them all at home, away from the ignominy of migration, rooted in their place.

Just like the song.

Boxty IRELAND dumpling potatoes

The Farrelly Family Dumpling Boxty

Traditionally boxty was made on the griddle, with the starch from raw potatoes, mash from boiled potatoes and salt. Gradually the method changed to boxty boiled in a pot, boxty fried on a griddle or in a pan, and boxty baked in the oven.

Flour was added to pan boxty, then milk and bicarbonate of soda to form a batter that could be cooked like a pancake.

Flour was also added to baked boxty along with butter or lard or bacon fat, seasoned, and shaped into farls.

Drummully Boxty is made with potatoes and salt, and boiled.

It is cut and fried, baked or grilled.

  • 500 g rooster potatoes, peeled, grated and squeezed to release liquid
  • 500 g rooster potatoes, boiled, skinned, mashed
  • 10 g salt
  • Water, for boiling

When the hard starch has separated, pour away the clear liquid, and quickly add to the mashed potatoes, season. Shape into large dumplings, 8 cm in diameter at the round end, and boil for 20 minutes

From Cheese, Chowder and Comfort Food: Ireland’s Food Renaissance.

Bacon, Black Pudding and Boxty with Vegetable Roll and Baked Beans – a Modern Irish Breakfast

Brændende Kærlighed DENMARK Burning Love!
potato mash with bacon and onions, herbs

In Denmark it is the tradition to serve mashed potatoes garnished with bacon and onion and the specialities of the region where you originate. These accessories can come from a selection of cheeses, pickles and sausages as well as beetroot, carrot and cucumber, and berries, herbs and fruits. With the industrialisation of the country in the 19th century, migrating workers brought their traditional dishes to the city. This dish, euphemistically known as burning love because of the piping hot potato mash, epitomised the food of the provinces, each putting their own version into the mix.

  • 1 kg floury potatoes, peeled, quartered, boiled
  • 300 g bacon, cubed small
  • 300 g onions, finely chopped
  • 200 ml cream or crème fraîche
  • 150 g beetroot, peeled, diced
  • 50 g butter
  • 50 ml milk
  • 5 g chives, chopped
  • 5 g parsley sprigs
  • 5 g sea salt
  • 5 sprigs thyme
  • Nutmeg, large pinch
  • Pepper, large pinch
  • Olive oil, for greasing
  • Personal accessories

Preheat oven to 200°C. Place the beetroot on a greased baking tray with the thyme, bake for 15 minutes. Fry bacon in a pan without fat or oil until it is crispy, set aside. Sauté onions in the bacon fat in the pan until golden. Return bacon to the pan and heat through. While the potatoes are still hot, mash with the cream and milk, season, and keep warm over a low heat. Melt butter. Spoon into the centre of a deep plate, make a hollow in the middle, add bacon and onions followed by the butter, then the beetroot. Surround the mound with chives, parsley and personal accessories.

From Nordic Food.

Chervonyy Borsch UKRAINE red stew

Among the Slavic cuisines, traditional Ukrainian food is considered one of the most diverse, and its peculiarities are the consequence of being restricted to baking in a hot oven and cooking on hot plates. Ukraine borrowed much of its food culture from neighbouring countries but the arrival of the potato in the 19th century impacted heavily on the use of traditional cereal, fish, meat and vegetable products. The predominance of pork and veal, garlic and onion, berries and fruits, grains and herbs, leaf and root vegetables were the result of an agrarian lifestyle. A hallmark of these ingredients is borsch, totally representative of the diversity of native dishes. Borsch can be green, red and cold. In the old days borsch contained beetroot and bread, but nowadays this version is rare. A technically sophisticated dish, modern borsch uses several culinary techniques and a large number of ingredients.

This is the recipe for red borsch by Andrey Kokarev, head chef at Estadio in Kharkiv.

  • 3 litres water
  • 1 kg meat bones
  • 700 g potatoes, cut into strips
  • 600 g cabbage, cut into strips
  • 500 g veal
  • 300 g beet, cut into strips
  • 300 g green leaves, cut into strips
  • 300 g salo (salted pork fat)
  • 300 g tomatoes, blended
  • 200 g carrots, cut into strips
  • 200 g shallot, chopped
  • 100 g parsley root, chopped
  • 100 ml sour cream
  • 30 g butter
  • 30 ml vegetable oil
  • 3 garlic cloves, crushed
  • 5 black peppercorns, crushed
  • 3 allspice berries, crushed
  • 1 bay leaf
  • Salt, large pinch
  • Sugar, large pinch
  • Vinegar, splash for beets, splash for stew

Simmer bones for two hours, add veal and simmer for 90 minutes, strain liquid and retain the meat. Sprinkle some vinegar on the beets, fry in oil for 15 minutes, then add a small amount of broth and stew for 20 minutes. In a separate frying pan sauté carrot, parsley root and shallot in butter for a few minutes, then add tomatoes, sugar and vinegar. Return to the large cooking pot. Cook potatoes in the meat broth for 15 minutes, then the cabbage for 10 minutes, season with salt. Add stewed beets for 10 minutes, then the fried vegetables.Simmer everything for 10 minutes. Meanwhile cut veal into bite-sized pieces, add to the pot with the spices. Remove pot from heat, add garlic, herbs and salo, cover and allow at least 20 minutes of infusion. Serve in large bowls with a tablespoon of sour cream for each diner.

From Traditional Tastes of Europe.

Zürcher Rösti

Johann Jakob Strub brought the potato to Switzerland. A native of the canton Glarus, he was a lieutenant in the English army and according to legend returned home with a bag of seed potatoes from Ireland.

Potatoes were cultivated in Glarus in 1697.They spread to the neighbouring cantons and by the middle of the 19th century prötlete herdöpfel, fried potatoes, replaced barley porridge as the preferred breakfast among farming families around the growing city of Zurich.

The recipe travelled south-west into the Bernese countryside and over the mountains into the Roman canton of the Valais, where it was called pommes de terre roties. It became the morning meal among the French-speaking farmers, was shortened to roties – rösti in Swiss-German.

By the mid-20th century variations of the original recipe began to appear. The Roman west preferred boiled potatoes, the Germanic east used raw.

  • 1 kg potatoes, grated, squezzed and dried
  • 4 onions, sliced
  • 30 g oil
  • 15 g caraway seeds, soaked
  • Salt, large pinch

Mix onions and potatoes, and sauté in a frying pan over a medium heat for ten minutes. Place a plate on top of the frying pan, invert onto the plate. Oil pan and slide rösti back. Cook for 20 minutes.

The rösti story is told in Cooked, Cured and Curdled: The modern story of traditional food in Europe and in Blue Window | Food Travels in the Alps.

Recipes with Potatoes

Älpler Fondue SWITZERLAND fondue with macaroni, potatoes
(Blue Window | Food Travels in the Alps)
Anjovisläda SWEDEN anchovy, potato gratin
(Traditional Tastes of Europe)
Bela Krajina SLOVENIA cream of potato soup
(Blue Window | Food Travels in the Alps)
Boerenkool Stamppot NETHERLANDS mashed potatoes, onions, kale, smoked sausages
(Traditional Tastes of Europe)
Bolinhos de Bacalhau PORTUGAL fish and potato balls
(Traditional Tastes of Europe)

Herrengröstl / Tiroler Gröstl ITALY AUSTRIA left-over meat and potato
(Blue Window | Food Travels in the Alps)

Brav u Mlijeku MONTENEGRO lamb in milk with potatoes
(Traditional Tastes of Europe)
Bryndzové Halušky SLOVAKIA potato noodles with Bryndza cheese, smoked bacon (Traditional Tastes of Europe)
Bulviniai Paplotėliai su Brokoliais LITHUANIA broccoli, potato cakes
(Traditional Tastes of Europe)
Chowder IRELAND fish soup with potatoes
(Traditional Tastes of Europe)
Colcannon IRELAND kale and potato mash
(Traditional Tastes of Europe)
Cuchêla ITALY bacon, pork ribs, potatoes, salami / sausages, seasonal vegetables
(Blue Window | Food Travels in the Alps)
Frico con Patate e Cipolla ITALY cheese, onion, potato fritters
(Blue Window | Food Travels in the Alps)
Gamsi Obara SLOVENIA chamois stew
(Blue Window | Food Travels in the Alps)
Hobotnica Ispod Peke CROATIA slow-cooked octopus with potatoes
(Traditional Tastes of Europe)
Idrijski Žlikrofi SLOVENIA stuffed potato pasta
(Blue Window | Food Travels in the Alps)
Marillenknödel AUSTRIA apricot potato dumplings
(Blue Window | Food Travels in the Alps)
Patatnik BULGARIA cheese, egg, potato pie
(Blue Window | Food Travels in the Alps)
Rösti Berner SWITZERLAND pan-fried boiled potatoes with bacon
(Blue Window | Food Travels in the Alps)
Rösti Ursprünglich SWITZERLAND original pan-fried boiled potatoes
(Blue Window | Food Travels in the Alps)
Skordalia GREECE garlic, lemon juice, olive oil, potatoes, walnuts
(Traditional Tastes of Europe)
Touffâye BELGIUM fricassee / fricot / stew with potatoes and sausages
Truita de Patata i Ceba CATALONIA potato omelette
(Traditional Tastes of Europe)

Varieties of potatoes are discussed in Cooked, Cured and Curdled: The modern story of traditional food in Europe.


Legendary Dishes | Bündner Bohne und Gerstensuppe (enriched barley soup)

Bündner Bohne und Gerstensuppe SWITZERLAND Grabünden bean and barley soup

Barley soups were once a daily stable of northern European traditional food. They were earthy – suffused with the aromas of herbs and spices, forest mushrooms, root vegetables, enriched with stock from the bones of pig and poultry. Krupnik, the Polish version, is the epitome of this type of barley soup – hearty and not too thick, whereas in the Swiss mountains the people made it an art-form. This is the version from the east of Switzerland, the canton of Grabünden, now cooked throughout the confederation.

  • 2.4 litres hock stock / water
  • 4 smoked pork sausages, chopped small
  • 250 g potatoes, chopped small
  • 250 g bacon / ham, cubed
  • 150 g cabbage, sliced
  • 150 g carrots, cubed
  • 1 leek, sliced
  • 100 g barley, soaked overnight
  • 100 g celeriac, chopped small
  • 100 g onion, sliced
  • 100 g white beans, soaked overnight
  • 50 g butter
  • 15 g sunflower oil
  • 1 bay leaf
  • Chives, bunch, chopped
  • Pepper, large pinch
  • Salt, large pinch

Sweat cabbage, carrots, celeriac, leek and onions in butter and oil over a low heat, about 15 minutes. Add barley and beans, water, bay leaf and bacon or ham. Cook for three hours. Add potatoes and sausages after 150 minutes, cook for 30 minutes. Season, serve garnished with chives.

Vevey Food Market

Fruit, vegetable and mushroom stall at Vevey market – photo © Sebastien Staub

Travellers arriving in Vevey by train have a choice of exits. Our exit is unseen, back along the platform in the Valais direction almost to the end, a right turn onto an imperceptible path that leads into Rue de la Glergère.

This narrow street dissects Rue des Communaux, the road that fronts the buildings of the railway station, and Avenue de la Gare, the main thoroughfare through the town, and comes out on Rue du Simplon.

It is a short walk through a tree-lined plaza to Rue du Théâtre and the Läderach chocolate shop at number eight, a story for another day because we have arrived on market day in the expansive Grand Place, a short walk further along.

By chance we have arrived on the cusp between the last warm days of autumn and the first cold days of winter. There is a slight chill in the dry air. As the morning progresses the air begins to warm. The sight of dark clouds over the lake is a sign of rain.

The market at Vevey has a reputation beyond the Grand Place. Traders who frequent the circuit of market days between Vevey and the Valais towns arrive with produce from the region and from across the lake in Savoy. Grenoble grown fruit and vegetables add to the rich harvest from Vaud and the Valais.

Cheeses, salamis and sausages are among the artisanal specialities, but today the queues form between the bread stall, selling typical Swiss breads of all shapes and sizes, and an old man standing behind a small fold-out bench.

He is the mushroom man, selling the last fruits of the forest – cepes, chanterelles and oysters – of the season. An elderly woman, clearly of his acquaintance, shows him a large brown paper bag. He takes a sharp look inside, then weighs the contents on his machine. In seconds they agree a price. He adds the new bounty to his dwindling stock.

The famous pork pies of Vaud

The area between the Rue du Simplon and Rue du Théâtre is artisanal Vevey. At the end of Rue du Théâtre where the street joins the Grand Place, a street faces towards the east. This is the Rue des Deux-Marchés.

On the right is Fromagerie Wyssmüller where they specialise in fondue, packaging a range that includes a blend of mature Gruyère and Vacherin Fribourgeois cheeses – the classical mixture.

On the left, a little further along, is Boulangerie-Pâtisserie Favrel Fils, a bakery specialising in the breads and pastries of the Swiss Riviera, and including taillé aux greubons and tarte à la crème.

Now we are back on Rue du Simplon where the Vevey branch of the Macheret Fromagerie chain of cheese shops offers much more. Like Wyssmüller, Macheret displays the artisanal produce of the region, including paté à la viande and saucisses aux choux.

The famous smoked pork and white cabbage sausages of Vaud

We are now going to meet Françoise Lambert, curator of the Historical Museum of Vevey, to learn the history of the market. Vevey market is held in high esteem, she says, because the location – one of the largest natural squares in Europe – allows room for a diverse range of artisans and traders. It has been that way for hundreds of years.

‘It dates back to the middle ages and its actual location – the Place du Marché – outside the wall of the city is attested from the 14th Century. It took place on Tuesdays. In 1470 a part of the population asked the Duke of Savoie Amédée IX to bring it back in the city because of security and comfort reasons, others asked to keep it in the Place du Marché. Finally, the “big market” continues to be present at the square every Tuesday while other smaller markets are in the city every Thursday and Saturday. Amédée IX established four trade fairs – St. Antoine (January 14), St. Georges (April 23), St. Marie-Madeleine (July 22) and All Saints Days (November 1). Nowadays the fair of St. Martin (November 11) still exist and it’s always a big success.’

‘During the 18th Century  the market was organized in a rigorous way. We know, for example, that various sounds from Savueur’s Tower (the actual entrance of the “rue due lac”) indicated the opening of the trade for different goods: 7am for the butter, 8am for the wheat and so on. At the bottom of the Place du Marché, under rows of chestnut trees, cheese, butters and others dairy products were sold. The Grenette, built in 1808, became used as a covered place for the wheat.’

‘Being so close to the lake with a lakeshore, easily reachable, the expansive square was an important crossroads from north, east and west and linked Vevey to several villages and important cities. Everything helped the development of the market, which was known in the whole region.’

Local produce continues to attract a regular clientele. ‘We find all the regional products that are not necessarily in the big supermarket, like the fresh fishes of the lake,’ she says, adding that the amount of produce from France has been increasing since the mid-2000s.

Carlow Food Market

With its 15th anniversary in sight, Carlow’s food marketeers have cause to celebrate. During its short existence it has presented a strong image to town and country, at its height attracting a turnover of half a million euros.

Founded in August 2004 as the direct result of a local enterprise scheme to energise the community, John Hayden, the local rural resource worker put in charge of the project, had posed the question: ‘Would you be interested in a food-only / producer-only market, with handicrafts once a month?’

Consumers and producers alike said they would.

It was agreed there should be two stallholders each of bread, fish, meat and vegetables – for variety and competition – because these foods were seen to be essential to the success of a food market. There were 16 stallholders.

It got off to a good start. The town council adopted a hands-off approach. The original stallholders became Carlow Farmers Community Market, took out collective and individual insurance to indemnify the town council against claims (there have been none). 

They registered as a group with the revenue commissioners, acquired licences from the Health Service Executive to trade in the space provided by the council in the centre of the town. In turn the council passed a bye-law to allow the group to trade on a Saturday between 9 am and 2 pm. Local businesses supported the market. 

Then the mood changed.

The market has an ageing population and hardly any young blood coming through. There is a shortage of bread and pastry makers, vegetable growers and artisanal producers. 

And the group is shrinking. There are now only ten stallholders.

There is a strong feeling in Carlow and in the country in general that the attitude of the state towards small-scale producers who are not interested in the export market must be challenged, for the sake of local, seasonal food production.

Vegetable growers Charles and James Ryan had their growers license withdrawn by the Department of Agriculture over an auditing issue with new guidelines by the Food Safety Authority of Ireland that got blown out of proportion when arbitration would have resolved the problem. 

The fact that they have been closed down and ordered off the market for an issue that has nothing to do with food safety angered market goers. A petition in support of the Ryans was signed by over 100 people on one morning of a cold January day.

There is a constant fear that more stallholders will be lost. Jimmy Mulhall, who sells organic meat and meat products, has been researching food markets, travelling to France to see their models and looking at the closed markets in Dublin. If he decides to move his business indoors there is a possibility he will not bring his truck to town for the open market.

Raw-milk cheese-maker Elizabeth Bradley has been under investigation by the authorities and is determined not to be forced out of business or out of the market, where she sells cheeses from Ireland, France and other countries.

Other threats to the market include the town council’s plans for the space the stalls presently occupy, the lack of a manager to deal with bureaucratic problems (like the Ryans), logistical issues (like new stallholders) and marketing issues (like the website and general awareness).

Blinded by the Light!

Nadja Saralam, an Australian who works at the cheese stall, says Carlow needs its food market. ‘It is a growers / producers only market. So everything is grown and produced locally, and you can talk to the vendors about their growing methods and environmental values, and be comfortable in what you’re buying. You’re dealing with the people who really do produce what they sell, and know the food terrain.’

‘I love grabbing a bunch of carrots, and knowing they were pulled from the ground only a few hours previously. You certainly can’t beat the quality of the food you buy there, and prices compare to supermarkets. I no longer bother to shop anywhere else.’

Saralam is full of praise for the local producers. ‘I believe one of the best things you can do for the planet is to buy locally from responsible producers, and primarily eat seasonal, non-imported foods. Despite Ireland having lost its cheese culture, there is still a really good selection of Irish cheeses on the market. The stall at the Carlow market is run by a cheese maker who farms and produces cheese just four kilometres from my house – you can’t get better than that!’

Legendary Dishes | Icli Köfte (bulgur meatballs)

The Turks took these delightful Assyrian meatballs to their hearts (and stomachs) a very long time ago, and now produce numerous variations on the very old original recipe. In Istanbul the proliferation of Syrian restaurants has increased the competition to produce the best icli köfte among chefs.


  • 500 ml water, boiled
  • 350 g bulgur, fine ground
  • 150 g semolina, fine ground
  • 30 g walnuts, fine ground
  • 5 g cumin seeds
  • 5 g sweet paprika
  • 5 g salt
  • Semolina, coarse, for coating 

Soak bulgar and semolina in the hot water, leave to rest for 30 minutes, then add the walnuts and seasonings. Wet hands and knead into a soft dough.


  • 250 g beef / veal, double minced
  • 200 g onions, chopped
  • 100 g walnuts, coarse chopped
  • 4 tbsp fresh mint, finely chopped (optional)
  • 4 tbsp parsley, finely chopped (optional)
  • 30 ml olive oil
  • 30 ml pomegranate molasses
  • 15 g red pepper (paprika) flakes
  • 15 g / 30 g red pepper paste
  • 5 g sumac, ground

Sauté onions in oil, about 15 minutes. Add the meat, break and fry for three minutes. Add paprika, sumac and walnuts. Increase heat, stir for three minutes until the walnuts release their oil. Stir in the molasses and paste, leave to cool. If desired work the herbs into the mixture. Divide dough into walnut-sized pieces, about 30 g. Using thumb and forefinger make a cavity with thin sides in the bulgar dough. Place 10 g of filling inside the cavity, push down and fold dough over the filling, seal and shape into a ball. Deep fry in sunflower oil at 190°C until golden or shallow fry in a large frying pan or bake in a 200ºC oven or boil in salted water.

*A note on the red pepper paste, it can be bought in jars but it is easy to make if good fresh red peppers, preferably Turkish, are available.

*The crust for icli köfte is not always made with bulgar. Semolina became a crust ingredient along with nuts aeons ago. Wheat grits have also played a part while in more recent centuries potatoes have been combined with eggs and flour. Some recipes call for double-ground meat to be added to the various flours that define the crust. The bulgar can be coarse ground and also fine ground, the latter producing a crispy crust. The cooking method is also variable.

*According to Sahrap Soysal, author of A Cookery Tale, fried icli köfte are called irok, while the boiled version is known as igdebet.


Pellegrino Artusi Recipes

Here at Fricot we have food heroes who need to be known. Among those we place in the pantheon of culinary excellence is Pellegrino Artusi. In 1891 he published a cookbook, and changed the world. 

Born in Forlimpopoli in 1820, prejudice led him to Florence where he re-established himself as a banker and became a man of leisure in his later years.

In 1880 at the age of 60 he set up an experimental kitchen at his home in the Piazza D’Azeglio. Then he spent ten years compiling anecdotes, ideas and notes about the authentic recipes of Italy’s diverse regions and with the assistance of cook Marietta Sabatini and housekeeper Francesco Ruffilli tested them to perfection.

After an unsuccessful search for a publisher, he published his book at his own expense, giving it away to friends until it caught on and went through numerous editions. The 13th had 790 recipes compared to the 475 in the first, self-published edition.

‘Science in the Kitchen and the Art of Eating Well’ changed the way Italians thought about their food.

His book is unique. Hardly anything published since has surpassed it for its simplicity and fidelity. Of the 790 recipes in the book almost all are regarded as the templates for the modern versions.

Here are some of Artusi’s recipes.

Broccoli Romani broccoli with wine

Pellegrino Artusi gives an interesting twist to broccoli cooked with pork belly and sweet white wine.
  • 500 g broccoli heads, washed, blanched, cooled in ice water bath, drained
  • 250 g fatty pork belly, chopped small
  • 250 ml sweet white wine
  • 5 g black pepper
  • Salt, large pinch

Chop broccoli coarsely.

Heat a frying pan and start rendering the fat from the pork belly. When the pork is crispy add the broccoli and cook for five minutes. Add wine, cook over a medium heat until all the liquid has been absorbed.

Fagioli all’uccelletto Toscano Tuscan beans with sage and tomato sauce, bird-style

Only the good cooks of Florence would take an aroma intended for game bird dishes, transfer it to the range of protein-rich beans grown across the peninsula and keep the original name. So this is not a bird and bean dish, it is a bean and herb dish, sage prominent. The medium – tomato sauce flavoured with black pepper and garlic – remains the same. Pellegrino Artusi recorded a more rustic version. Sage leaves are fried in oil, the beans and seasonings are added, sauteéd for a few minutes, finally sufficient tomato sauce is added to coat the beans. Usually served with soft bread, this is a truely ironic dish.
  • 500 g borlotti beans / cannellini beans, fresh / cooked
  • 350 g tomato passata
  • 90 ml olive oil
  • 3 garlic cloves (optional)
  • 10 g black pepper
  • 1 sprig sage (optional)
  • 1 sprig rosemary (optional)
  • 5 g salt
  • 5 g oregano leaves, whole (optional)
  • 5 sage leaves, whole

Sauté garlic in the oil for five minutes, add half of the pepper and herb leaves. Increase heat, fry for two minutes. Add beans, coat in the mixture, and then add the tomato passata and the herb sprigs. Heat through, and serve with bread or as an meat accompaniment.

Vitello Tonnato veal with tuna sauce

Vitello tonnato is a typical antipasto of Piedmontese cuisine. It is prepared with a specific cut of meat marinated in dry white wine and flavorings for half a day, boiled in marinated water, cut into thin slices and covered with a tuna sauce in oil. The sauce is prepared by blending hard-boiled egg yolks with capers, anchovies in salt, oil, white wine, lemon juice, salt and pepper. Pellegrino Artusi refers to a method where the anchovy, caper and tuna sauce that is the essential element of this cold dish becomes a marinade, infusing the sliced cooked veal with pungent flavours. 
  • 1 kg veal, rump, whole
  • 3 carrots, peeled, whole
  • 3 parsley roots, scrubbed, whole
  • 3 stalks celery, whole
  • 1 onion, peeled, whole
  • 100 g tinned tuna, minced
  • 2 lemons, juice
  • 50 ml olive oil
  • 25 g capers, minced
  • 8 anchovy fillets
  • 4 cloves
  • 2 bay leaves
  • Salt, large pinch
  • Water, for cooking
  • String, for tying

Make four deep cuts in the centre of the veal, push an anchovy into each one, tie meat together. Stud onion with cloves. Place the veal in a large saucepan with the bay leaves, carrots, celery, onion, parsley and salt, cover with sufficient water and bring to the boil.  Simmer covered for 45 minutes, until meat is tender, soft to the touch and not tough.

When the veal has cooled, untie the string and cut into thin slices.

Mince the remaining anchovies with the capers and tuna, pour in the lemon juice and olive oil to make a thin sauce. Use as much oil as necessary.

Serve the veal with the tuna sauce, with soft white bread.

Alternatively marinade the meat in the sauce for eight hours, bring up to room temperature, then serve.

Calentita / La Farinata de Ceci / L‘oro di Pisa / Panelle (chickpea fritters)

Calentita – chickpea fritters of Gibraltar

Sea and serendipity created the Ligurian street food known as la farinata. Once upon a time over seven centuries ago it had a different name, the consequence of a storm in the Bay of Biscay following the battle of Meloria between the republics of Genoa and Pisa.

Fed on chickpea gruel, the rowers of one ship cursed their luck when they realised their food supply of chickpea flour and olive oil had been contaminated with the salty water of the sea during the storm. Some hungry rowers ate the chickpea pulp, others could not stomach it and left it in their bowls.

The following day, tempted by their increasing hunger, some rowers noticed that the pulp had hardened in the sun and was more palatable. Back on dry land the Genoese experimented with the accidental combination, baked it to a crisp and named it the ‘gold’ of Pisa. Later it became la farinataor la farinata de cecialthough some Genoese call itfaina de ceixi, from the local dialect.

It is a fanciful story, given the long culinary history of the venerable chickpea, and we would not dare tell the Italians, especially the people of Genoa, that one of their legends is not based on reality.

Domesticated chickpeas were found at Abu Hureyra in northwest Syria and at Çatalhöyük in central Turkey, archaeological sites that are respectively 11,000 and 9,000 years old, and are celebrated as one of the original civilised crops. Cultivated from the wild variety, the chickpea called desiis a native of Anatolia. A small angular chickpea, it is now grown across the region. Introduced into the Indus Valley, it was developed into the round kabulichickpea.

The ancient version of desihad to be eaten fresh within days of harvesting because it dried quickly into hard stone-like lentils. Humusor humous– blended chickpeas, garlic, lemon juice, oil and sesame seed paste (tahini) – was the obvious solution and now chickpeas and sesame seeds are seen as an essential culinary marriage. Dishes made with the combination are associated with the Arab countries, the Caucasus, the Levant and the eastern Mediterranean.

Chickpeas gradually formed an integral aspect of the traditional food of the Mediterranean basin. The Phoenicians, being Levantine traders, probably brought them to Tunisia and to Spain, where they are now indigenous and an essential ingredient in traditional Spanish food.

Chickpeas and rice is a popular dish throughout the Mediterranean. Rice with chicken and chickpeas is a national dish of Spain. Chickpeas feature in soups and stews. Chickpea balls are a typical Greek snack. Egypt’s national dish kushariis made with chickpeas. In Cyprus they make a snack with mashed chickpeas. Armenia has a unique dish called topik, a chickpea and potato shell stuffed with a tahini mixture of currants, onions, olive oil, pine nuts and spices. 

An ancient fermented bread made with chickpeas and white wheat flour has made a comeback in Turkey. Emir Ayşe Özer and his colleagues at the Cukurova University Department of Food Engineering in Sarıçam / Adana described the process.

‘It was prepared in two stages. In the first stage chickpeas were coarse ground in a mortar and pestle and subsequently soaked with boiling water and some salt in a glass jar. The jars were incubated at 37-40 °C for 16-18 hours. In the second stage flour was added to obtain a dough. The dough was leavened and then cooked. The bread had a typical odor and taste.’

And of course chickpea flour, called gram flour in Asian countries, is incredibly versatile. In the Indian sub-continent it is used to make a popular savoury confection called gathia

That brings us back to the chickpea fritter.

Famous as street food in the shape of lozenges, rectangles and squares, these golden fritters are more than a snack, they are history and tradition. Called panellein Palermo, calentitaon the rock of Gibraltar and l‘oro di Pisa in Genoa, it is hard to believe that a mixture of four ingredients – chickpea flour, olive oil, salt and water – could be cooked differently to produce the same result.

In Palermo salted chickpea flour is mixed with sufficient water to make a thick batter, poured onto a flat surface to cool, cut into desired shapes and then fried in olive oil.

In Gibraltar two methods are employed. Some cooks use less water and put much more olive oil in the baking tray. Other cooks use a ratio of four parts water to one part flour (1 litre to 250 g) but finish the cooking under a grill to enhance the colour. The calentita are cut into squares, sprinkled with cumin seeds and served with harissa.

In Genoa the method is more precise, with roughly one third chickpea flour to water (for example, 900 ml water to 250 g / 300 g chickpea flour), left to soak for 12 hours, then seasoned with black pepper, salt and sesame oil. The mixture is poured onto a tray covered with a heavy layer of olive oil and baked in a hot oven for 50 minutes, until the edges take on a golden red colour.

Calentita chickpea fritters

Called calentita after the Castilian word caliente for hot, the chickpea fritters made on Gibraltar reflect the culinary origins of this street food, its journey around the Mediterranean basin and out into the world. The same recipe is used in Algeria and in south America. There are subtle differences, clearly all a matter of taste!
  • 1 litre water
  • 250 g chickpea flour
  • 30 ml olive oil (more if necessary)
  • 5 g cumin, ground (optional)
  • 5 g harissa (optional)
  • Salt, pinch

Sieve flour into a bowl, add water and salt. Rest mixture for at least 12 hours, stirring occasionally with a whisk to aerate the dough.

Pour the mixture with choice of amount of oil into high-sided baking trays, leave to rest for an hour.

Preheat the oven to 210°C.

Bake for 45 minutes until it is golden brown on the surface.

Cut into pieces, sprinkle with ground cumin and serve with the harissa.

La Farinata de Ceci / L‘oro di Pisa chickpea flour fritters

Sea and serendipity created the Ligurian street food known as la farinata. Once upon a time over seven centuries ago it had a different name, the consequence of a storm in the Bay of Biscay following the battle of Meloria between the republics of Genoa and Pisa. Fed on chickpea gruel, the rowers of one ship cursed their luck when they realised their food supply of chickpea flour and olive oil had been contaminated with the salty water of the sea during the storm. Some hungry rowers ate the chickpea pulp, others could not stomach it and left it in their bowls. The following day, tempted by their increasing hunger, some rowers noticed that the pulp had hardened in the sun and was more palatable. Back on dry land the Genoese experimented with the accidental combination, baked it to a crisp and named it the ‘gold’ of Pisa. Later it became la farinata or la farinata de ceci although some Genoese call it faina de ceixi, from the local dialect.
  • 900 ml warm water
  • 250 g chickpea flour
  • 75 ml olive oil, for baking tray
  • 30 ml sesame oil
  • 10 g green pepper, ground
  • 5 g salt

Pour chickpea flour into a large bowl. Gradually add warm water. Whisk for three minutes to remove any lumps, cover and leave for 12 hours at room temperature. Pre-heat oven to 250ºC, and leave a baking tray, roughly 25 cm x 35 cm, to warm for 30 minutes. Spoon off the froth that rises to the surface of the chickpea mixture. Whisk, add seasonings and sesame oil.

Pour olive oil over the tray, followed by the chickpea mixture. Reduce oven temperature to 220ºC, bake for 50 minutes until the edges are golden-red and the surface is golden-brown.

Panelle chickpea fritters

For the Palermo touch, panelle should eaten in bread rolls with a squeeze of lemon.
  • 750 ml cold water
  • 300 ml vegetable oil
  • 250 g chickpea flour
  • 30 ml sesame oil
  • 10 g green pepper, ground
  • 5 g salt
  • 2 sheets of baking paper / parchment

Put chickpea flour in a large pot, whisk in water and seasonings. Bring heat up gently, stirring all the time until the mixtures starts to come away from the edges of the pot.

Pour the mixture onto the sheet of paper or parchment, cover with second sheet. Using a rolling pin roll into a very thin layer, around 3 mm.

Remove paper and cut dough into 5 cm squares.

Bring oil up to frying temperature, fry the squares until they begin to puff up and turn golden.

Dry panelle on kitchen paper, sprinkle with salt.

Tarhana (cereal-vegetable-yoghurt powder)

Tarhana / Tarkhana TURKEY ARMENIA cereal-vegetable-yoghurt powder

Claimed by the Turks (Armenia has a slightly different version), tarhana (pronounced tra-hana) is a popular fermented cereal food associated with ancient Asian cooking and regarded as an essential source of proteins, minerals, acids and vitamins.

Cereal flour (wheat or corn or chickpea), yoghurt, yeast, onions, tomatoes, green peppers and red peppers, herbs and spices (from garlic, mint, thyme, dill, tarhana herb), and salt make up the ingredients, commercially and domestically.

The vegetables and spices are blended cooked or uncooked in sufficient water to make a paste. Some methods use commercial tomato, green and red pepper pastes. Flour, yeast and yoghurt are added to the paste to make a thick batter, which is kneaded daily and fermented over several days.

When the moisture has been reduced and the fermentation has slowed, the mixture is broken into pieces, then sun or oven dried. Finally it is ground into powder for use in soup or rolled into layers for a snack. In powder form it can be stored for up to three years without deterioration.

In Armenia and Turkey generations of experimental cooks have made tarhana a variable feast. Flavourings have been used to relieve the sour acidic yeasty taste. Mint is especially popular and garlic is revered, but the tarhana herb, a member of the parsley family, is the secret ingredient gradually being revealed.

Before food scientists realised that the yoghurt to flour ratio affected the taste and the quality, local cooks played with the amount of yoghurt and their results are reflected in the regional variations of tarhana made in the home. Scientists now argue that more yoghurt and the use of set yoghurt increases the nutritional benefits.

Traditionally tarhana was made without yeast. Despite the argument from the food scientists that the yeast-yoghurt formula increases the amount of beneficial lactic acid, many home cooks prefer to take their yeast from the air. 

Tarhana has never left the home, despite the advance of large-scale commercial production. Fermented in the cool of the kitchen, it is dried in the heat of the sun, packed with love and sent out to family and friends.

In Armenia it is called tarkhana, made with wheat and yoghurt in a 1:4 ratio, used in soup with oil and mint.

Several cooks also use cracked or crushed wheat as well as flour in the preparation of the fermentation batter. This would be known as the Greek method if the Turks did not argue that they have always used cracked wheat or bulgar, as they do on Cyprus, where the tarhana is culturally compromised by its Greek or Turkish origins.

Tarhana is the epitome of a popular traditional dish. When made into tarhana çorbasi, the easily digested Turkish thick creamy soup, it is consumed by all ages and desired by the poorly and sick, inevitably the clue to its longevity

Turkey’s popular dishes do not exist without a story to root them in the food culture. At the end of the day during Ramadan, the Sultan decided he should find a meal among the people. Disguised, he found a home where he was served a simple soup containing mutton pieces.

‘What meal is this?’ he asked.

‘Sultan, it is a darhane meal,’ said the host humbly, implying it was a ‘poor house’ meal.

The name gradually changed to tarhana.

Tarhana Çorbasi tarhana soup

More tarhana.
  • 700 ml water
  • 65 g tarhana powder

Mix the powder with some of the water to make a paste in a saucepan. Add the remaining water and bring gradually to a low boil, simmer for ten minutes. Serve with a small cube of butter in each bowl.

Gingerbread Architecture

From Rome to Radovljica

… the GINGERBREAD traditon …
At Lectar (gingerbread master) in Radovljica they have been making gingerbread
by hand since 1766. Gingerbread has been a Slovenian traditional food since the 1300s. Specialist gingerbread bakers appeared in the 19th century, when the tradition of giving gingerbread gifts became popular.

Gingerbread has been an established European food tradition for over 800 years. Known in Roman times as a vehicle for the exotic spices from the east, the tradition gradually spread to the rest of Europe.

Celebrated as a festive food, in the form of cakes, balls (and nuts) biscuits and pieces (used to make elaborate designs such as houses), gingerbread is whatever you want it to be. There is sufficient evidence to show that clever cooks took advantage of the myriad ingredients to produce big and small culinary masterpieces.

The base for gingerbread was honey (and still is in many countries) combined with a variation of six spices – cardamom, cinnamon, clove, nutmeg, pepper and ginger, dried and ground into a powder.

The clever cooks of Slovenia and Sweden in particular do not regard gingerbread as a mere food item. For them it is more, a warehouse of hard and soft biscuits to be erected and decorated, adorned with creams and icings and nuts and candied sweets. For them gingerbread and its adornments are bricks and slabs made with butter, cream, flour, honey or molasses, milk, nuts, peel, soda, spices and sugars, mortar and plaster made with butter, cream and sugar in much the same way that a real house is filled with beauty, creativity and love, a gingerbread house is filled with flavour, creativity and all things sweet and unctuous. 

Elsewhere in Europe gingerbreads are celebrated with creations that are simple, such as the spice nuts of the Netherlands, or with creations that are complicated, such as the gingerbread biscuits and cakes of Germany.

In Switzerland they make gingerbread without ginger!

It is there in the plateau below the Alps, bordering France and Germany, that the bakers continue to follow the older tradition by producing honey biscuits and pastries flavoured with spices.

These honey gingerbreads tend to be made in all shapes and sizes, and none taste the same. Each baker uses recipes passed from the generations but are fond of a tweak now and again. They also follow the tradition of using potash (calcium carbonate) instead of bicarbonate of soda to put air into their gingerbread creations. What elevates their gingerbread onto a different level is their deliberate choice of fresh ingredients. The quality of honey is the difference between a piece of gingerbread with a depth of flavour so strong you can taste the forest and one that is inferior. This also explains why their gingerbread bears are expensive.

Gingerbread Cake ENGLAND 

This is an old English recipe adapted from the imperial measurements. Moisture is the secret to the success of these spongy gingerbread cakes, so expect to make several attempts to get it exactly right. We used Chinese stem ginger soaked in syrup. The flour is soft wheat anything around type 450.
  • 450 g white wheat flour, sieved
  • 336 g syrup
  • 284 g milk
  • 225 g ginger nuts, chopped small
  • 225 g brown sugar
  • 175 g orange, juice and grated rind
  • 170 g butter
  • 1 egg
  • 15 g ginger powder
  • 12 g baking powder
  • Tip of knife bicarbonate of soda
  • 5 g salt

Line three loaf tins with greaseproof paper and scatter ginger pieces along the bottom of each tin. In a saucepan melt the butter, syrup and sugar over a low heat. Grate the orange rind into the butter mixture, add the juice and leave to cool. Sieve the flour into a large bowl and add the baking powder, ginger powder and bicarbonate of soda. Add the egg to the milk. Use an electronic whisk or mixer to combine all the ingredients. Divide the batter between the three tins. Preheat oven to 180ºC on the fan, put tins in oven. Bake at 180ºC for 30 minutes, reduce heat to 170ºC for ten minutes. Test with a small knife or skewer, if it comes out clean the cakes are ready. Allow to cool in the tins.

Pepparkakor SWEDEN gingersnaps

Crispy pepparkakor are known in Europe as gingersnaps despite being more like ginger breads than ginger biscuits. Another product of the monastic life, pepparkakor got their name because ground ginger was believed to be a member of the pepper family. They made a good travelling food, eventually making their way into Sweden in the 13th century. Adopted as a traditional treat, they became associated with Saint Lucia during the end of year festivities. Originally made with flour, honey and ginger, they evolved to include cinnamon and cloves, raising agents and softeners like butter and cream. The round shape gave way to numerous shapes, from christmas trees to hearts and stars, while the old rounds and squares were made thicker to be used as building blocks for the construction of gingerbread houses. The gingersnap was flavoured with all kinds of spice, fruit essence and coated with icing. They are crushed in cheesecakes and trifles, served with cream cheese and smoked salmon and stacked with cream fillings. Gradually the recipe evolved, molasses or syrup or treacle, butter, egg and sugar replaced the honey, and other spices were added.
  • 350 g white wheat pastry flour
  • 125 g honey
  • 125 g butter
  • 100 g almonds, ground
  • 100 g brown sugar
  • 1 egg, beaten
  • 15 g cinnamon, ground
  • 15 g ginger, ground
  • 10 g cloves, ground
  • 5 g baking powder

Melt butter, honey and sugar over a low heat for ten minutes, add spices, bring to the boil, leave to cool. Pour into a large bowl, whisk in the egg. Sieve the baking powder, flour and ground almonds into the bowl, work into a dough. Cut into four pieces, refrigerate for an hour. Roll first piece on a floured surface as thin as possible, without letting the dough break. Cut into rounds, about 80 pieces. Arrange on greaseproof paper on baking trays. Repeat until dough is used up. Preheat oven to 180ºC. Bake each tray for 10 minutes. Cool pieces on a wire rack.

Pepparkakor modern version

Cream or milk started to replace butter, ginger came to the fore, soda was used to give the biscuits a lift and the dough was rested before rolling.
  • 500 g white wheat pastry flour
  • 150 ml cream, whipped
  • 100 g brown sugar
  • 100 g golden syrup / molasses
  • 30 g ginger, ground
  • 10 g baking soda
  • 5 g white pepper, ground

In a large bowl add the sugar to the cream, fold in the molasses or syrup, then the ginger and soda. Sieve flour into the mixture, refrigerate for eight hours. Cut dough into six pieces. Roll first piece on a floured surface as thin as possible. Cut into rounds or squares, about 80 pieces. Arrange on greaseproof paper on baking trays. Repeat until dough is used up. Preheat oven to 200ºC. Bake each tray for 12 minutes. Cool pieces on a wire rack.

Kruidnootjes NETHERLANDS ginger nuts

A freshly ground sweet spice mix is the starting point for these aromatic nuts. It can be bought ready packaged but home grinding and grating whole spices gives a fresh kick to these nuts. Traditionally the spice mix is 2:1 cinnamon to each of cloves, ginger and nutmeg with a lesser amount of white pepper. Intrepid bakers also use cardamom, coriander, fennel and anise.
  • 250 g flour
  • 125 g brown sugar
  • 100 g butter
  • 45 ml milk
  • 15 g traditional spice mix (speculaas)
  • 1 tsp baking powder
  • Salt, large pinch

Sieve flour and baking powder into a large bowl, mix in spices and salt. Add sugar, cut in the butter, the milk, one tablespoon at a time until the dough is firm but soft. 

Rest dough for one hour.

Preheat the oven to 150°C.

Cut the dough into 10 g pieces, roll into balls and place on a lightly buttered baking tray. 

Bake for 15-20 minutes, shorter for softer nuts.

Kruidnootjes are part of the tradition associated with the spiced moulded biscuits produced on Saint Nicholas Day – known as speculaas in Belgium and the Netherlands, spekulatius in Germany.

Lebkuchen GERMANY gingerbreads

These gingerbreads are neither one thing nor the other anymore. Traditionally made into a sticky dough with candied fruit, eggs, nuts, honey and spices, and associated with Nürnberg (in 1643 the city’s gingerbread bakers formed a guild), lebkuchen are baked throughout alpine Europe, with countless variations that have nothing in common. Even the traditional spice mix is missing from some versions. Other versions omit ginger, some are known to contain cream, and several use spelt instead of wheat flour. This version remains faithful to the honey, nut and spice content. It includes all of the spices that were known to 11th century bakers, and suggests the wild flower honey that made them irresistible to children of all ages through the generations.


  • 255 g sugar
  • 215 g hazelnuts fine ground 
  • 180 g (3) eggs
  • 80 g forest / wildflower honey
  • 60 g spelt flour
  • 50 g candied lemon peel, chopped small 
  • 50 g orange, zest
  • 25 g walnuts, chopped small
  • 45 g vanilla sugar
  • 10 g candied ginger, chopped small


  • 4 g cinnamon, ground
  • 3 g allspice, ground
  • 3 g ginger, ground
  • 1 g anise, ground
  • 1 g baking powder
  • 1 g cardamom, ground
  • 1 g cloves, ground
  • 1 g coriander, ground
  • 1 g nutmeg, ground


  • 65 g icing sugar
  • 10 ml kirsch / brandy
  • 10 ml red wine

Blend eggs and sugar into a froth, add remaining ingredients and leave to rest overnight. Spoon 80 g of the mixture into 12 moulds. Bake at 180°C for 30 minutes. Leave to cool, then apply the glaze.

Basler Läckerli SWITZERLAND gingerbread biscuits

The Basler Läckerli is a small, rectangular gingerbread biscuit (without the ginger), thin glazed and dusted with icing, a much harder bite than the Belgian and Dutch variety. It is one of several Swiss variations of gingerbread that began when oriental spices arrived in 11th century monasteries. Läckerli is believed to mean ‘to lick’.
  • 700 g flour
  • 20 g baking powder or 10 g potash
  • 500 g liquid honey
  • 300 g sugar
  • 30 g cinnamon, ground
  • 15 g clove, ground
  • 15 g nutmeg, grated
  • Cardamom, pinch
  • 100 g almonds and hazelnuts, chopped
  • 100 g lemon and orange candied peel, chopped
  • 1 lemon, zest
  • 150 ml kirsch
  • Glaze (100 ml water to 150 g sugar); icing sugar

Bring honey and sugar slowly to a boil, simmer until sugar dissolves, cool. Mix nuts, peel and spices with the zest and kirsch. Sift the flour and baking powder into a large bowl, gradually adding the honey syrup and the nut paste. Knead into a pliable dough.

If using potash, mix with cherry brandy.

Rest overnight.

Roll the dough out to a depth of roughly 6mm onto two greased parchment sheets, place on baking trays making sure the dough is evenly distributed all around.

Rest for an hour.

Preheat oven to 200°C.

Bake for 20 minutes.

Make the glaze and apply evenly, dust with icing sugar.

Cut into 5 x 5cm rectangles.

Making a large batch is worth the effort. Kept in air-tight containers they will stay fresh for several months, slices of apple will soften them.

Läckerli are broken into pieces and dissolved slowly in the mouth. 

Replace wheat flour with rye flour to get the authentic 17th century version.

Older recipes use more almonds, usually the same amount as the sugar.

Many homes added milk to the mixture, at a ratio equal to the honey and flour, the milk mixed with the honey. Some homes added eggs, mixing them with the sugar.

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Legendary Dishes | Champignons avec de l’huile d’olive et l’ail (white mushrooms in olive oil)

Champignons avec de l’huile d’olive et l’ail FRANCE white mushrooms in olive oil

This is a salad tradition that is slowly dying out – sliced Parisien (white) mushrooms in olive oil and garlic.

  • 250 g white mushrooms, sliced
  • 250 ml olive oil
  • 2 garlic bulbs, peeled and crushed

Soak mushrooms in garlic and oil for two days, drain oil and serve on a bed of crispy lettuce.

Legendary Dishes | Flæskesteg med Rødkål Smørrebrød (roast pork and red cabbage open sandwich)

Flæskesteg med Rødkål Smørrebrød DENMARK roast pork and red cabbage open sandwich

When each member of the smørrebrød family is presented in an array, they provide a perfect glimpse into Denmark’s culinary traditions, past and present. Among these are flæskesteg (roast pork) and rødkål (red cabbage). Together on dark rye bread they epitomise Danish food, crispy and crunchy. Flæskesteg med rødkål og brunede kartofler (roast pork with crispy crackling and red cabbage with caramelised potatoes) is one of Denmark’s signature dishes. It usually comes topped with cucumber slices, orange slices and halved prunes.

Legendary Dishes | Flæskesteg med rødkål og brunede kartofler (roast pork with red cabbage and browned potatoes)

Flæskesteg med Rødkål og Brunede Kartofler DENMARK roast pork with red cabbage and carmelised potatoes


  • 2 kg pork, boned rolled collar/shoulder with thick skin
  • 2 large onions, halved crosswise
  • 25 g salt

Preheat oven to 190°C. Lay pork on onions in a deep baking tray. Cook for two and a half hours. Once the pork is in the oven, prepare the red cabbage and potatoes.

Red Cabbage – 1

  • 2 kg red cabbage, chopped into small pieces
  • 8 cooking apples, cored, cut into large chunks
  • 300 ml red wine/cranberry juice
  • 300 g wild berry jam
  • 180 ml sunflower oil
  • 60 ml balsamic/wine vinegar
  • 50 g butter
  • 45 g cumin seeds
  • 15 g nutmeg, grated
  • 10 g seasalt
  • 1 tsp cinnamon, ground
  • Pepper, large pinch

Pour oil into a large deep pot and sauté cabbage for five minutes over a low heat, stirring constantly.

Fold in the apple, coating the pieces with the oily cabbage, cook for ten minutes.

Turn heat to high, add wine or juice, vinegar and jam. Bring to the boil.

Stir, reduce heat to low, add spices and simmer for two hours uncovered, until the cabbage is soft with still some bite in it.

Add butter, cover and leave to melt, about five minutes.

Red Cabbage – 2

  • 2 kg red cabbage, chopped into small pieces
  • 250 ml red wine
  • 125 ml currant juice
  • 100 ml vinegar
  • 50 g butter
  • 50 g oil
  • 15 g pepper
  • 10 g salt

Pour oil into a large deep pot, add butter and sauté cabbage for ten minutes over a low heat, stirring constantly.

Turn heat to high, add juice, vinegar and wine. Bring to the boil.

Stir, reduce heat to low, add seasonings and simmer for two hours uncovered, until the cabbage is soft with still some bite in it.

Red Cabbage – 3

  • 2 kg red cabbage, chopped into small pieces
  • 8 cooking apples, cored, peeled, cut into large chunks
  • 450 ml orange juice
  • 50 g butter
  • 50 g oil
  • 50 ml vinegar
  • Salt, large pinch
  • Pepper, large pinch

Pour oil into a large deep pot, add butter and sauté cabbage for ten minutes over a low heat, stirring constantly.

Fold in the apple, coating the pieces with the oily cabbage, cook for ten minutes.

Turn heat to high, add wine or juice and vinegar. Bring to the boil.

Stir, reduce heat to low, add seasonings and simmer for two hours uncovered, until the cabbage is soft with still some bite in it.

Carmelised Potatoes – 1

  • 1 kg small potatoes, whole
  • 50 g butter
  • 50 g sugar

Parboil potatoes. Leave to cool and dry off.

Heat sugar over a high heat for three minutes until it dissolves, add butter to make a syrup, stirring constantly with a wooden spoon. 

Add potatoes and quickly carmelise in the syrup. 

Serve with crackling, pork meat, gravy and sweetened red cabbage.

Carmelised Potatoes – 2

  • 1 kg small potatoes, whole
  • 50 g brown sugar
  • 50 g butter

Parboil potatoes. Leave to cool and dry off.

Heat sugar over a medium heat for five minutes, add butter and stir with a wooden spoon. 

When the butter is amalgated and the mixture is bubbling gently into a foam, add potatoes, coat completely, turn up heat and brown, constantly turning, about three minutes.

This method produces softer brown potatoes.

Serve with crackling, pork meat, gravy and sweetened red cabbage.

Legendary Dishes | Sun over Gudhjem Smørrebrød (smoked herring open sandwich)

Sun over Gudhjem Smørrebrød DENMARK smoked herring open sandwich

One of the most iconic members of the family is Sun Over Gudhjem, after the Bornholm island town where the silvery-white herrings of the Baltic sea are transformed into golden fish by the smoking process, ‘the gold from the sea’.

Sun Over Gudhjem is made with a slice of rye bread, two smoked herrings, chives, radish and a fresh raw egg yolk on top, the aforementioned sun.

But there is only one place to taste this delicious treat and that is on Bornholm. Despite its location midway between Poland and Sweden in the Baltic sea it is relatively easy to get there, two and a half hours by bus from Copenhagen.

Smørrebrød pieces embrace the entire culinary range of Danish foods – fish, meats, vegetables with dressings, seasonings and toppings – and this isn’t the place to list the myriad ingredients or discuss the rapid changes in recent years that have seen the re-emergence of this Danish institution with the emphasis on fresh, local food by imaginative cooks and chefs.

Af Ole Troelsø’s The Insider Guide to Smørrebrød is a better place to start.

Legendary Dishes | Leverpostejmad Smørrebrød (liver paste open sandwich)

Leverpostejmad Smørrebrød DENMARK liver paste open sandwich

Buttered bread (the literal meaning of smørrebrød) is an inadequate term for these high-topped luncheon enterprises, but one branch of the family sits nicely with the concept of a simple open-faced sandwich. Butter is lavishly spread on a thick slice of rye bread, followed by a sprinkling of salt and a thick layer of liver paste. After that the choice of modest toppings is personal. Danes choose a combination of cucumber, fried bacon, fried onions, lemon, lettuce, mushrooms, pickled beetroot, pickled gherkins, red pepper, salted meat, savoury jelly. Leverpostej was among the first smørrebrød pieces in the late 19th century and it remains popular.

Legendary Dishes | Pane Toscano (unsalted Tuscan bread)

Pane Toscano ITALY unsalted Tuscan bread

Pane Toscano should be made with type 0 flour, from soft wheat containing the germ.

  • 1 kg flour
  • 550 ml water
  • 200 g biga
  • 30 g sourdough
  • 1 tsp honey (optional)

Mix and knead ingredients for at least 20 minutes. Leave to rise covered for an hour. Dough temperature should be 25°C.

Shape into large rectangular loaves with rounded corners between 450 g and 550 g.

Rest for two and a half hours, degas twice, remove to baking tray after last folding.

Preheat oven to 200°C.

Bake for 25 minutes until the crust is dark brown.

The crumb should be ivory-white. There should be a toasted hazelnuts aroma about the bread.

Legendary Dishes | Dalmatian Pašticada (sweet pot beef)

Pot Beef Slices in Aromatic Sweet Sauce
Dalmatian Pašticada CROATIA MONTENEGRO sweet pot beef

Every June a festival is held in Petrovac on the Montenegrin section of the Dalmatian coast. The event is a celebration of pašticada, a traditional dish insanely popular with the inhabitants of this stunning coastline, served free with several other coastal specialities.

Along the Dalmatian coast the method of flavouring the beef differs slightly, but the sauce is generally made with prunes and raisins, occasionally with figs. Prosek, the Balkan sherry wine, is another essential indigenous ingredient. 

For Split travel guide Pero Milos pašticada was integral to his young life. Prepared for carnival, for weddings and for New Year’s Eve since the mid-20th century, the cut of meat for pašticada varied along the Croatian Dalmatian coast. In Split pašticada is part of brunch (ten o’clock to noon) and made with beef fillet is simply delicious. Generally it is made with the rump or the silverside.

There are similarities between pašticada and the sauerbraten, the soured beef of Bavaria. Pašticada is different because it is sweet, although some versions are sweet and sour!

  • 2 kg beef fillet / leg / loin / rump / silverside
  • 350 ml water
  • 250 ml red wine vinegar
  • 200 g pancetta fingers / prosciutto slices, rolled into a cigar shape
  • 6 garlic cloves, halved
  • 6 rosemary sprigs
  • 6 cloves

Make deep cuts at each end of the beef, stuff with pancetta or prosciutto. Make shallow cuts in the body of the beef, insert garlic halves. Puncture the beef with cloves and rosemary. Place in a deep bowl, add vinegar and water to completely soak the beef. Cover and leave to marinate for at least 24 hours, 48 hours is better.

Finish 1
  • 100 g raisins
  • 60 ml marinade liquid
  • 6 figs, dried, chopped

Soak the raisins and figs in the marinade for eight hours.

Finish 2 
  • 300 g onions, sliced
  • 300 celeriac, grated
  • 300 g carrots, grated
  • 1 celery stalk, chopped small
  • 60 ml olive oil
  • 10 g mustard powder

Pour four tablespoons of oil into a deep pot (slightly larger than the piece of beef), gently fry the carrot, celery, celeriac and onions. When the vegetables have reduced stir mustard power into the mixture. The pot should have a steam hole to allow a slow evaporation of the cooking liquid.

Finish 3
  • 2 kg marinaded beef
  • 30 ml olive oil

Remove the beef from the vinegar, strain vinegar into a bowl. Heat two tablespoons of oil in a large frying pan, brown the beef on all sides.

Finish 4
  • {browned, marinaded beef}
  • {fried vegetables}
  • 500 ml beef broth / bouillon made with 30 g Vegeta
  • 500 g red grapes
  • 150 ml prune juice
  • 60 ml marinade liquid (optional)
  • 2 thyme sprigs
  • 3 bay leaves
  • Nutmeg, large pinch

Carefully place the browned beef into the pot with the fried vegetables, add the broth or bouillon, grapes, prune juice and, if a sour taste is required, some of the marinade liquid. Cook over a low heat for two hours.

Finish 5 
  • {soaked fruit}
  • 250 g prunes, stoned
  • 100 ml Prosek (dessert wine) / sherry / red wine
  • 100 g sour apple, cored, peeled, chopped
  • 30 g tomato concentrate / puree
  • 15 g honey

Add the soaked fruit and their liquid, the prunes and apple. Gradually bring up the heat. Add the wine. Cook for 30 minutes, adding the tomato concentrate and honey after 25 minutes. When the beef is starting to fall apart, the pašticada is ready. 

Finish 6
  • Cooking mixture

Remove the beef from the pot, leave to rest covered with foil for ten minutes. Meanwhile blend the cooking mixture into sauce. Cut the beef into thick slices, serve with the sauce. Pašticada is traditionally served with gnocchi.

Country Profile | Albania

Despite Ottoman influence that is still evident today and more recent Greek, Italian and Turkish methods, Albanian traditional food remains faithful to ancient origins, as far back as the Illyrians, based on meat, dairy, fruit, legume, nut and vegetable products and in quixotic techniques of food processing and cooking.

Lesley Blanch tells the story of a ‘bandit’ hiding out in the mountains whose favourite food was honeyed potatoes. Simple yet pleasurable, yet only part of the story. Albania has always been famed for its honey and the rural innocence of its produce.

A largely mountainous country, the equal rural-urban split among its three millon population has allowed those traditions to re-emerge in the early decades of the 21st century, so much that Albania is seen as a country with a diverse culinary heritage that should be celebrated and developed. 

Meat from unique breeds of calves, goats, lambs and pigs is used in numerous traditional preparations, from gammon to salami, and specifically in the closed-pen and spit-roasting methods of cooking various cuts. Wood-fired ovens remain popular, despite modernity.

Although traditional recipes have survived into the modern era, there is a genuine fear that many recipes have already been lost. Chefs Rajmond Çomanaj and Tefta Pajenga are concerned, to the extent that Çomanaj issued a plea to his country people to look out for old cookbooks and Pajenga highlighted regional traditional recipes on her TV show.

Pajenga said the tendency to combine foreign foods with native foods was a development that could not be stopped. Many recipes now deemed traditional were once foreign. The Ottoman pastries called byrek are a domestic treasure, a street food desired by the young who take great delight in seeing anything, savoury, sour or sweet, put into the filling. 

The feta (white cheese) and spinach filling is popular throughout the region because it is traditional to the Balkan region, but it is obvious that the pies made in Albania are unique to their area, like the shapkat of the south, which is made with cornmeal, curd cheese and spinach or leek.

Nowhere is that old Ottoman influence apparent than in the choice of confections, particularly with byrek, hallva and kadaif, and in the use of rice and yoghurt in numerous traditional preparations.


Almond + Apple + Apricot + Aubergine / Eggplant + Bay / Laurel + Basil + Bean + Beef + Berry + Cabbage + Carp + Celery + Cherry + Chestnut + Corn / Maize + Dairy + Duck + Eel + Fig + Game + Garlic + Goat / Kid + Goose + Grape + Green Bean + Honey + Lamb + Lemon + Marjoram + Melon / Watermelon + Mint + Mullet + Octopus + Okra + Olive + Onion + Orange + Parsley + Peach + Pear + Perch + Plum + Potato + Poultry (egg and meat) + Pumpkin / Squash + Red Cherry + Red Pepper (paprika) + Rosemary + Sea Bass + Sole + Spinach + Squid / Cuttlefish + Tomato + Trout + Turkey + Veal + Walnut + Wheat + Wild Boar + Wild Plants



Ajvar red pepper sauce

Ballokume Elbasan cornmeal biscuits

Birjan chicken / lamb and baked rice

Bukë me Miell Misri corn bread

Bukëfiqe dried fig dessert

Burani me Spinaq (dhe Mish) whole rice with spinach

Byrek filled pastry 

Byrek me Kos e Djathë të Bardhë white cheese-yoghurt pastry 

Byrek me Kungull pumpkin pastry

Byrek me Mish (Mesnik) meat pastry

Byrek me Spinaq spinach pastry

Çervish aromatic sauce with chicken / dumplings

Djath i Bardhë white cheese

Djath Kaçkavall yellow cheese

Fërgesa Tirana Tirana stew

Filetë Pule me Rroshnica chicken with garlic-flavoured dumpling grains

Gjel Deti me Përshesh turkey with bread mash

Gliko Fiku të Egër wild figs in syrup

Gliko Portokalli oranges in syrup

Gurabie cakes

Hallva sweet walnut paste

Hallvasi almond-sesame seed honey paste

Harapash Mëmëlikë lamb liver with cornmeal

Hasude me Arra nut dessert

Jahni stew

Japrak stuffed grape / vine leaves

Jufka Dibre me Pulë chicken with Dibra noodles

Jufka Shtepie home-made filo pasta

Kabuni me Rrush të Thatë sweet rice with raisins

Kaçamak cornmeal mash 

Kadaif sweet walnut pastries

Kapama me Filetë Viçi beef fillet of Kapama

Kofshë Pule me Tërhan të Ëmbël chicken with wheat grains

Kos me Mjaltë Voskopoje yoghurt with honey Voskopoja

Krap në Tavë carp casserole

Kulaç cheese yoghurt scones

Kulloshtër pasture pie

Mantija meat parcels

Mëlçisë të Skuqur fried liver

Meze appetisers

Mish i Pjekur në Hell spit-roasted meat

Mish Qengji me Salcë Limoni lamb with lemon sauce

Musaka me Patate potato-meat bake

Paçe lamb’s head soup

Patate të Pjekura baked potatoes

Patate të Mjaltit honey potatoes

Patëllxhanë të Mbushur stuffed aubergine with cheese topping

Pelte me Mjaltë e Arra jelly with honey and nuts

Petanik të Korça bean pie of Korça

Petulla fried dough balls / pancakes

Pispili me Presh cornmeal-leek pie

Pispili me Spinaq cornmeal-spinach pie

Pogaçe Vakti yoghurt breads

Pulë me Arra chicken with nut sauce

Pulë me Qull chicken cooked in cornmeal-garlic sauce

Qahitë të Çamëria layered buttered pastries of Çamëria

Qeshqek me Pulë cracked wheat risotto with chicken

Qingj në Hell skewered lamb

Qofte meatballs

Qofte me Oriz-Qifqi Gjirokastre egg-rice balls

Qumështor me Miell Misri cornmeal-milk pie

Raki grape / plum liqueur

Revani Berati me Miell Misri corn meal dessert of Berat

Shapkat cornmeal, white cheese and leek / spinach pie

Shurupi i Thanës red cherry syrup

Speca të Mbushura stuffed peppers

Sultjash rice pudding

Supë me Qofte meatballs in soup

Supë Pule me Arra chicken and walnut soup

Tasqebap fried beef

Tavë Dheu beef casserole of Tirana

Tavë Dheu Pikante spicy sausage casserole with olives and peppers 

Tavë Korani (koran) trout casserole

Tavë Kosi lamb and yoghurt casserole

Tavë me Kumbulla Shahine lamb with plums

Tavë me Mish Qengji dhe Qumësht lamb and milk casserole

Tavë me Pllaqi e Mish Viçi bean and beef casserole

Tavë me Speca dhe Patëllxhanë aubergine and peppers casserole

Tavë me Speca të Mbushur stuffed peppers casserole

Të Brëndshme të Qengji fried lamb offal

Trahana sun-dried fermented wheat and sour milk / yoghurt

Turli meat and / or vegetable stew



aromatic sauce with chicken / dumplings

Traditionally this sauce is made with trahana powder, from fermented young wheat and sour milk or yoghurt, and can also be made with cornmeal or white wheat flour but each reacts differently. The trahana and wheat flours produce a sauce, the cornmeal produces a mash. The choice is left to the cook. Usually chicken is cooked in a sauce, while meatballs made with beef are cooked with the cornmeal to produce a mash.


  • 1.5 kg chicken legs and thighs, separated
  • 45 ml olive oil
  • 5 g black pepper
  • 5 g salt
  • Oil, for greasing

Season the chicken pieces. Heat the oil in a large saucepan and fry, in batches, the legs and thighs until they are thoroughly browned. Place the chicken in a greased baking tray. 


  • 500 g beef mince
  • 100 g cornmeal, fine ground
  • 1 egg
  • 45 g butter
  • 5 g black pepper
  • 5 g salt

Combine the minced meat with the seasonings, add the cornmeal, knead until the fat starts to separate and then add the egg to form a loose dough. Shape into 50 g balls. Heat the butter and gently brown the meatballs. Place the meatballs in a greased baking tray. 


  • 300 ml butter / sour cream
  • 150 g trahana powder / cornmeal, ground fine
  • 150 ml water
  • 10 garlic cloves, crushed
  • 45 ml apple cider vinegar
  • 30 ml olive oil
  • 10 g black pepper
  • 10 g red pepper flakes
  • 5 g salt

Prepare the chicken or meatballs. Preheat oven to 180ºC. Heat the olive oil in a large saucepan, add the trahana or cornmeal and stir, using a wooden spoon, until the mixture takes on some colour. Add the garlic, cook for a few minutes. Turn heat to low, stir in the vinegar and gradually add the butter or sour cream. If using cornmeal add sufficient water to form a sauce, a little less for the trahana. Season with the black pepper, red pepper flakes and salt. Bring the heat up but do not boil. Pour the sauce into the baking tray with the chicken or meatballs. Bake for 40 minutes.

fried liver

  • 500 g lamb liver, cut into 6 cm x 1 cm strips
  • 4 tbsp (60 g) white wheat flour
  • 60 ml olive oil
  • 2 tsp red pepper flakes
  • 1 tsp black peppercorns
  • 1 tsp salt
  • 1 tbsp dried marjoram

Sieve the flour into a large bowl, add marjoram, red pepper flakes and salt. Dredge liver in the flour, shake off excess flour and divide into two batches. Heat a tablespoon of oil in a large frying pan over a high heat. Start frying first batch of liver. After a few minutes, when the liver turns colour, add a tablespoon of oil and fry until the strips are crispy. Remove to a plate lined with paper towels. Repeat with second batch. Serve with onion salad. 

sautéed beef / lamb / veal with onions

There are subtle differences between the food cultures of Albania and Kosovo, which are more obvious with dishes that are regarded as traditionally Albanian, stews being among those where the ingredients dictate the content and method. This slow-cooked meat and onion stew is one of them. In Albania it is made with meat (usually lamb), onions, tomatoes, usually in the form of a paste, and a hint of paprika, whereas in Kosovo beef is preferred, red wine will replace tomato pasta and the hand that holds the paprika will have a heavy shake.
  • 2 kg onions, chopped small
  • 2 kg beef / lamb / veal, cut into bite-sized pieces
  • 250 ml water
  • 90 g butter 
  • 60 ml red wine / tomato paste
  • 45 ml olive oil 
  • 30 g paprika
  • 15 g salt
  • 5 g cinnamon, ground
  • 3 bay leaves
  • Black pepper, pinch 

Put the chopped onions into a large bowl, sprinkle with salt, toss and leave covered for an hour. Heat oil in a frying pan, brown meat in batches, place in a large pot with the onions, butter and water. Deglaze the frying pan with wine, add to pot. Bring to a low boil, add bay leaves, cinnamon and half of the paprika. Cover and cook over a low heat for 90 minutes, add remaining paprika, cook for an hour until the meat is tender. Serve with potatoes or with rice.

fried dough balls / pancakes

These delicacies have a schizophrenic existence. They exist as a batter and are fried as pancakes or they exist as a dough and are deep-fried as balls. The ingredients remain the same – flour, milk, yoghurt and sugar usually with an egg. They can be leavened with baking soda or yeast, and they can be unleavened. Butter is used in some versions. Sweet paprika will give a spicy hint. And lemon, as essence and zest, will add a depth of flavour. Vegetables are grated into the mixture and cheese is a popular topping.
  • 200 g white wheat flour, t00 (for batter) / 425 g white wheat flour, t00 (for dough)
  • 200 ml whole milk, warmed in 30 g vanilla sugar
  • 125 g yogurt
  • 1 egg, beaten
  • 10 g sweet paprika 
  • 10 g yeast, dissolved in vanilla-milk
  • Olive oil, for frying
  • Icing sugar, for dusting

Combine the beaten egg and yoghurt, whisk in the yeast mixture and add to flour (for batter or dough). Leave the dough for an hour, the batter for 30 minutes. Add sufficient oil to cover a heavy-based frying pan, make the pancakes to the size of your choice. Cut the dough into 25 g pieces, shape into balls, deep-fry. Serve the pancakes with fruit, honey, jam or jelly, or with a combination. Dust the balls with icing sugar, serve hot.

cornmeal, cheese and leek / spinach pie

  • 1.5 litres whole milk
  • 1 kg leek, sliced thin / spinach, chopped
  • 400 g cornmeal
  • 250 g + 60 g white cheese, crumbled
  • 1 egg
  • 2 scallions / spring onions
  • 30 g butter
  • 2 tablespoons olive oil
  • 10 g black pepper
  • 5 g salt

If making the leek version, simmer the leeks in the milk over a low heat for 15 minutes, drain the milk, leave leeks and milk to cool. Preheat oven to 180ºC. Whisk the egg, oil and milk, add seasonings. Fold in the cornmeal, the leeks or spinach and spring onions, finally the bulk of the cheese. Grease a baking tray with the butter. Spoon mixture into the tray, top with remaining cheese. Bake for 60 minutes.



Albania Traditional Cuisine from Albania Tourism first appeared in the early years of the 21st century and quickly went through various drafts. Albanian Cooking, a cookery book published in 1997, is now out of print. 


Shije is an interesting portal into Albanian cooking. It features some of the country’s traditional foods with reinterpretations that reflect the diversity of the produce and the imagination of the domestic cook. In 2018 there were 135 variations of traditional recipes. It also features interpretations of recipes from neighbouring countries, and variations of classic traditional cuisine from the world.

Legendary Dishes | Nohutlu Pilav (rice with chickpeas)

Chickpeas cooked with rice have been a stable of Asian cooking since rice was first cultivated. Gradually a plain version from Anatolia moved west into Europe, now the real thing – rice pilaf with chickens – has come to light with the re-emergence of traditional Azerbiajani cuisine.

  • 400 ml water or chicken stock, boiled
  • 300 g rice, soaked in water for 30 minutes, drained
  • 120 g chickpeas, soaked in water for 8 hours or overnight
  • 4 tbsp butter
  • 3 tsp salt

Boil the chickpeas until softened, drain and set aside. Wash the rice until the water runs clear. Melt the butter in a pot, add the rice, and saute for 5 minutes. Add the hot stock, chickpeas, and salt. Cover and let it cook over medium heat. Once dimples form on the rice, place a paper towel between the pan and the lid and turn down the flame really low. Cook for another 5-6 minutes.Take the rice off the heat and rest for 15 minutes with the lid on. Then serve with lots of black pepper.