Tag: Rösti

Ingredient | Potato

Domesticated and cultivated in the highlands of Peru thousands of years ago, the potato (papa to the Incas) made its appearance in Europe with the Spanish in the 16th century (1539), quickly spreading throughout western and northern Europe to become a field crop despite resistance from the peasantry in Germany and Russia, where potato production would eventually become the highest in Europe and the world.

The tradition of boiling potatoes whole in their skins and serving them with butter or buttermilk is gradually dying out. A dish made from mashed potatoes and buttermilk was called THE STIFFNER in the west of Ireland, but it is now a rare sight on a plate. PURÉE DE POMMES DE TERRE, baked potato mashed with butter and milk, is hardly seen anymore.

ROAST POTATOES have managed to survive, largely as an accompaniment to roast meat dinners in Britain. In eastern Europe and Russia potatoes were boiled and roasted in animal fats – goose, duck, etc – a tradition that is still holding out, despite health concerns.

MASHED or PUREED POTATOES remain popular. You can still go into a shop in south London and order a plate of JELLIED EEL or PIE, POTATO MASH and PARSLEY SAUCE. Mashed potatoes and carrots, and spiced with nutmeg, called STOEMP in the Netherlands and Belgium, is a clever interpretation of an early food tradition brought into the region by the Spanish. In Ireland kale and potatoes are mashed together to make COLCANNON. The potato and garbanzo (chickpea) pate called TOPIK made in Armenia is having a makeover.

They were added to stews and soups. IRISH STEW, initially with mutton, potatoes and onions, now with lamb, potatoes, onions and seasonings, has also survived the test of time. In the Alpine regions of Austria and Italy BOZNER HERRENGRÖSTL, a potato and veal stew, has done the same. Less so in Scotland with STOVIES, a stew made with potatoes and onions and leftover meat.

SODD is a spicy meat and potato soup in Norway. Potato is an essential ingredient in SEAFOOD CHOWDER. KÄSE UND KARTOFFEL SUPPE is always on the menu in Germany and neighbouring countries. In Scotland CULLEN SKINK is smoked haddock, potato and onion soup.

MEAT and POTATO PIES are not as popular as they once were in the north of England because the recipe is being lost with the generations. In Slovenia they make a wonderful potato pasty called IDRIJSKI ZLIKROFI. And back in England the CORNISH PASTY, made with beef, onion, potato and swede, is managing to hold its own against fast-food competition. Potato is a main ingredient in the Swiss mountain dish called CHOLERA, which also contains apples or pears, cheese and onions.

FRENCH FRIES, aka CHIPS, appeared on Paris streets in the mid-19th century and soon became synonymous with street fried fish.

In England the two were combined to become FISH AND CHIPS.

In Switzerland the tradition of grating raw potatoes and baking them on hot griddles to make RÖSTI can be traced to the Zurich region in the 17th century. MALUNS are toasted potato lumps in Switzerland, served for breakfast.

In Italy they were prepared pureed with flour and blanched in hot water to make GNOCCHI. Potato dumplings are still popular in northern and central Europe. In Austria dumplings made with apricot and potato are called MARILLENKNÖDEL.

Northern and central European countries got into the habit of making POTATO PANCAKES but it was the Spanish who made the TORTILLA, potato omelette, an essential element of the frying pan or griddle.

Slowly dying out is the tradition of making POTATO CAKES on a griddle. Once common across northern Europe, it is only in southern Europe, in Andorra, the Basque Country and Catalonia that it is still popular, albeit as the bacon, cabbage and potato cakes known as TRINXAT

Baked in the oven they became the base for POTATO GRATIN. Various ingredients, from anchovy to cheese and bacon, go into these baked dishes, such as TARTIFLETTE in France.

KÖTTBULLAR, meatballs in Sweden, are made with potato and meat – beef, pork or veal.

Then there is KARTOFFELSALAT, served hot and cold in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. A good potato salad is still a mystery to be solved, because those who know the secret are reluctant to share it.

In many countries they were the base ingredient to make raw alcohol (poteen and vodka).

High in carbohydrates, protein, minerals and vitamins.

 

Potato Varieties

 

… list to follow …

 

Traditional Potato Dishes

 

… list to follow …


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Legendary Dishes | Rösti (grated potatoes)

Switzerland

 

Across from the railway station in Lausanne is a rising cobbled street. It leads to a busy road in the heart of the lakeside city. Tucked in beside St Francois church is the august establishment known as Café Romand.

Under the auspices of Madame Christiane Péclat and her chef cuisinier Thierry Lagegre, it is rustic charm and serves some of the best traditional food in Switzerland.

mittelfrueh_urgenta_a
Urgenta

If you are lucky you’ll get a two-person table by the wide window looking out at those looking in, wondering what you are going to eat. If rösti is on your plate you might get a jealous look.

Lagegre makes it with parboiled semi-waxy potatoes, in the fashion of the Bernese. When UNESCO recognised the Bernese for their craftiness with this Swiss treat they knew what they were doing.

So there is an irony about a restaurant in Roman Switzerland perfecting a dish with a legendary association to the Germanic cantons of Switzerland.

We’ll come back to this.

 

Berner Rösti

 

1 kg potatoes, parboiled whole in skins 
a day before use, refrigerate or freeze dry
50 g bacon, diced
30 g butter
30 ml milk
Salt, large pinch

Grate potatoes and mix with salt.

Heat a large frying pan, add a third of the butter and oil, making sure to cover all the surface and up to the rim, turn heat to low.

Add bacon and potato, fry, pressing down with a spatula to form a cake. After ten minutes add another third of the butter and oil all round the edge of the rösti cake.

When the edges start to harden and crisp, shake the pan to make sure the potato mix has not stuck to the base. Cover with a plate and fry for another ten minutes until the underside has formed a golden crust.

Turn the rösti over by inverting the pan and plate, leaving it on the plate, and sliding it back into the pan.

Add the remaining third of the butter-oil around the edges. Leave to fry for ten minutes. Finally pour the milk over the rösti, cover and cook for ten minutes. The milk will evaporate.

Lard should be used but low fat butter mixed with vegetable oil is a viable option. Crafty cooks use goose fat laced with oil because it brings up the golden colour.

 

Zürcher Rösti

 

Johann Jakob Strub brought the potato to Switzerland. A native of the canton Glarus, he was a lieutenant in the English army and according to legend returned home with a bag of seed potatoes from Ireland.

Potatoes were cultivated in Glarus in 1697.

They spread to the neighbouring cantons and by the middle of the 19th century prötlete herdöpfel, fried potatoes, replaced barley porridge as the preferred breakfast among farming families around the growing city of Zurich.

The recipe travelled south-west into the Bernese countryside and over the mountains into the Roman canton of the Valais, where it was called pommes de terre roties.

It became the morning meal among the French-speaking farmers, was shortened to roties – rösti in Swiss-German.

By the mid-20th century variations of the original recipe began to appear.

The Roman west preferred boiled potatoes, the Germanic east used raw.

 

1 kg potatoes, grated, squeezed and dried
4 onions, sliced
30 g oil
15 g caraway seeds, soaked
Salt, large pinch

 

Mix onions and potatoes, and sauté in a frying pan over a medium heat for ten minutes.

Place a plate on top of the frying pan, invert onto the plate. Oil pan and slide rösti back. Cook for 20 minutes.

 

 

The Rösti Divide

 

The divide is longer between east and west, boiled and raw, lard and oil, it is between good rösti and bad rösti.

The secret to the success of rösti lies with the choice of potato, and how it is prepared.

fruehe_sirtema_a
Sirtema
fruehe_christa_a
Lady Christa
fruehe_ostara_a
Ostara

Starch content is crucial. It should be low to medium.

Generally mealy potatoes do not make good rösti and generally waxy potatoes are too firm, but these rules do not always apply.
It is the water in the potatoes
that makes a difference.

Swiss Agriculture recommend the Lady Christa, Ostara, Sirtema, Urgenta and Victoria varieties, which are all firm potatoes in the middle range.

The perfect rösti should be compact and crisp, and not greasy.

To achieve this, the potatoes – cooked or raw – must grate evenly and hold their cut shape.

Cooked potatoes are cooled in a fast-freezer, raw potatoes are cooled in a water bath. Then they are grated in a food processor for less than a minute.

Home chefs face challenges here.

Leaving them overnight in a cold place is how they did it in past days, and today the fridge will achieve the same aim – cool the potato for grating.

Whatever the choice, the grated potatoes must go into the pan or skillet immediately.

Butter or lard is still the preferred frying medium but the use of oil, sunflower in particular, is becoming popular. The next secret is controlling the heat and gas is preferred to electric, to prevent the rösti cake from burning.

And the final secret is experimentation – like all simple cooking!

 

Rösti Ursprünglich

Old style rösti. Recipe in Ice Travel and Snow Food: Culinary Adventures in Western Switzerland.

Rösti mit langsamen Bratkartoffeln

The idea of making rösti with slow-cooked roast potatoes sounds like a new idea. It’s not. Making rösti with leftover roast potatoes was always a tradition, it just never caught on in the cafes, diners and restaurants until now.

Recipe in Ice Travel and Snow Food: Culinary Adventures in Western Switzerland.

 

 

 Potato photographs courtesy of Swiss Agriculture


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EDITORIALS     EURO SNACKS     FOOD CONNECTIONS     FOOD STORIES     
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