Tag: Eggs

FEATURE | The Carbonara Conundrum

Fried Pork Cheek

Via di Ripetta radiates from the Piazza di Popolo, the poplar tree lined square at Rome’s northern gate, continues away from the chapel of the miracle toward the tomb of Augustus and the museum of his solar clock, the ara pacis, parallel with the meandering Tiber. Here street and river depart, the Tiber twists like a snake toward the Vatican City, the Ripetta runs straight as a die into an odd-shaped four-sided junction and becomes Via della Scrofa, the alley of Scrofa.

American soldiers arriving in the city from Anzio in the south-west and Cassino in the south, attracted by the ruins of the Colosseum and the Forum, the contrast of modern and contemporary Rome with Michelangelo’s hilltop square, the marble temple monument to the fallen of the First World War, the statue of Vittorio Emanuele II – Italy’s last king, and the expansive Piazza Venezia wouldhave drifted into a warren of streets around the high-sided domed Pantheon. And found themselves in a nearby street known for its taverns and trattoria – the alley of Scrofa.

Here, in June 1944, a cook in a trattoria produced a pasta dish dressed with bacon, cheese and eggs to feed the liberators, believing they would devour anything with eggs and bacon. The dish spread through the city and became known as spaghetti alla carbonara.

A nice story, yes? True? Let’s look at the evidence.

Eggs in a Basket.lowres

American quartermasters would have had access to smoked bacon and eggs (fresh and powdered). American soldiers’ Italian girlfriends graciously repaid gifts of bacon and eggs with a pasta dish that was a wonderful repast compared to war rations. Did a trattoria chef benefit from this arrangement? And produce an iconic dish?

Italians find amusement in the stories about the origins of their traditional dishes. Popular traditional recipes resided for centuries in the consciousness of those who cooked in the home and in the trattoria, and rarely did the stories – never mind the ingredients and methods ever get written down. They were passed down by rote.

Carbonara has numerous origins. There are the woodsmen in the central Italian regions of Abruzzo and Lazio who brought eggs, pecorino and guanciale (preserved pork cheek and pork belly) and dried pasta on their trips. Because guanciale was preserved with black pepper, when it was added to the dish it produced dark specks that resembled charcoal. Add the coincidence between carbonara and carbonada, the Abruzzese word for pancetta. And the fact that the region’s charcoal farmers known as the “Carbonari” were very fond of pasta with pork, cheese and eggs.

That pasta dishes should be made with bacon, cheese and eggs – ingredients that are associated with the type of pastoralism practiced in the hills and mountains of Abruzzo and Lazio – that such dishes should have a generic name among the people, and that migrant workers from the Apennines should bring them to Rome is equally plausible. Not so plausible is the argument that this combination has always existed in Rome. Carbonara did not become generally known until the 1950s, when variations of the recipe began to appear in cookbooks.

This brings us back to the “American” origin. Before the Anzio landing in January 1944, the Americans found themselves in Naples, with ample time to frequent the port city’s alleys and lanes. Along with folded pizza, spaghetti was a Neapolitan street food served with a meagre garnish of grated black pepper and grated pecorino cheese. According to legend an American G.I. tasted the spaghetti and decided it needed more flavour. This ingenious soldier added some powdered egg, a little smoked bacon and canned evaporated (condensed) milk.


Italians like to believe spaghetti alla carbonara comes from both traditions. The Americans arrived in the province of Lazio at Anzio on the coast, and at Cassino in the mountains, in January 1944. They fought a battle for the abbey at Monte Cassino and gradually moved through the valleys of Lazio to arrive in Rome in early summer. During almost six months in central Italy they adapted the traditional pasta dish known as carbonara, and thrived on it.

They replaced the guanciale with their smoked bacon, they added condensed milk but they preferred the local version made with fresh eggs. Remembering the name the dish was known by in the mountains, they adopted it. Within a year of the ending of the war, trattoria in Naples and Rome were offering pasta alla carbonara.

In 1947 the English cookery writer Elizabeth David began to compile recipes for “A Book of Mediterranean Food”. She mentioned three spaghetti dishes, vis: Neapolitan with garlic and olive oil, Neapolitan with garlic and tomatoes and Sicilian with anchovies, bacon, garlic, mushrooms, olives, onions and olive oil. In 1954 she returned to Italy to research her “Italian Food” cookbook. She mentioned the various types of pasta available in Italy and she gave a recipe for maccheroni alla carbonara. She said it could also be made with rigatoni.

Her version, for four people, included two eggs beaten, 120 g cured pork cut into strips fried in butter and grated parmigiano. She suggested mixing the pork into the eggs and adding the mixture to the hot cooked pasta, stirring until the eggs thicken and “present a slightly granulated appearance”.

She said it was “a Roman dish”.

As for the authenticity of carbonara, we would like to think there are two versions, one that is traditional to Apennine rural life (and Rome) and one that is traditional to the event that was the American liberation (and Naples), one without cream and with cured pork, one with cream and with bacon.

Today the choice of pasta is crucial, it should be a thin strip pasta that can hold the egg or cream-egg mixture, macaroni and penne are too thick!

The Roman recipe is simple, it is as much pasta as you like, one egg per person, a good quantity of cured pork and as much grated cheese as you want.

The Neopolitan recipe is only different because any type of bacon can be used, with cream to make the dish rich enough to fill empty bellies.

Carbonara Recipes 

Legendary Dishes | Norwegian Buffet Breakfast

Bergensk Frokostbuffé / Lefse NORWAY Bergen Norwegian buffet breakfast featuring potato pancakes plus bacon, bread, cheese {Gamalost, Gudbrandsdalsost, Jarlsberg, Pultost, Ridder, Snøfrisk}, crackers, eggs, herrings, pickles and more

Once apon a time travellers on Norwegian Railways sleeper trains were handed special tickets by the train chief.

‘These are for your breakfast, go to the hotel across from the station,’ the chief would explain to bemused travellers.

The sight on arrival in the grand hall of the grand hotel was a grand breakfast, an assortment of hot and cold foods that had no rival anywhere in the world.

Sadly this tradition has lapsed. On the sleeper trains between Oslo, the capital of Norway, and Bergen, Stavanger and Trondheim and between Trondheim and Bodø in the far north, a modest breakfast is served onboard.

The grandoise buffet breakfasts are becoming a thing of the past, but some hotels are clinging to tradition by presenting modest grand buffets.

Think of every possible breakfast food that is served across Europe, add the Norwegian love for loaves and fishes, cheeses and crispbreads, bacon and eggs, pickles and potatoes, and then something you never imagined.

Cheeses - selection of Brunost, Gamalost, 
Gudbrandsdalsost, Jarlsberg, Norvegia, 
Pultost, Ridder, Snøfrisk
Eggs - boiled, fried, poached
Fish - Klippfisk (cod), Lutefisk (lyed cod or ling), 
Sild (herring)
Potato Flatbread (Lefse below)
Smoked Bacon, grilled to a crisp
Smoked Salmon, served on Lefse or Toast

Lefse – 1


Traditional lefse is made with potatoes and rye flour.

1 kg potatoes, cooked whole, peeled, mashed
330 g rye flour
25 g butter
25 ml sour cream

Add flour to warm potatoes, form into a loose dough, leave overnight.

On a floured surface, roll dough as thin as possible without breaking it.

Fry in oil in a frying pan or dry on a hot griddle, turning constantly to prevent the surface burning.

Place on a plate, spread with butter-cream mixture, fold, cover with a teatowel.


Lefse – 2


This is a modern version.

1 litre milk
500 g pastry flour
500 g potatoes, cooked whole, peeled, mashed, cooled
125 g lard
125 g unsalted butter
30 ml sour cream
2 egg yolks
Butter, for spreading

Bring butter, lard and milk slowly to the boil, pour into a large bowl, sieve and stir in the flour followed by the potatoes, cream and finally egg yolks. Fold onto a floured surface, knead into a soft dough.

Cut dough into equal pieces, roll into thin rounds. Dust each round with flour and stack until the dough is used up.

Shake the flour off, fry in oil in a frying pan or dry on a hot griddle, turning constantly until the flatbread is crispy.

Place on a plate, spread one half with butter, fold twice, cover with a teatowel. Repeat with each round.


Other Breakfasts


ground beef paprika and pepper sausages

fish purée made with sprats, tomato juice and 
cranberries spread on toast

Continental (hotels)
bread rolls, cereal bars, cheeses, coffee, cold cuts, 
croissants, fruit, honey, juices, pastries, tea, yoghurt

back bacon, baked beans, eggs (fried or poached), 
fried mushrooms, fried tomatoes, pork sausages, 
toast/scrambled eggs on toast, cereals

milk-rice pastries with egg-butter (piirakka)

bread rolls, cheeses, jams/pastries (wienerbrød)

boiled eggs, bread rolls, cheeses, coffee, 
cold cuts, juices, pastries, pickles

Irish (northern)
back bacon, black and white puddings, fried eggs, 
fried soda bread, potato farls, steak sausages

Irish (southern)
back bacon, black and white puddings, fried eggs, 
fried mushrooms in butter, hash browns, pork sausages

sesame seed rings (simits)

cappuccino/double espresso

stuffed tomatoes with cooked rice, pimentos and capers

pancakes/peppercake (peperkoek)/sugarbread (suikerbrood)

brie and croissant

cake and coffee, cereals, cheeses, cold cuts, fruit, pastries

semolina coated potato cakes made with kefir and butter on poached egg

black sausages/chorizos/sausages, breads, cheeses, cold cuts, 
olive oil and tomatoes, paté, potato omelette (tortilla)

bread rolls, maluns/rösti, bacon, scrambled eggs, cheese, ham, 
fruit, müesli, yoghurt, chocolate spread

crushed baby plum tomatoes with olive oil, marjoram, thyme 
and sage spread on crostini



Legendary Dishes | Welsh Breakfast

Bacon, cockles, eggs and laverbread – the breakfast of Wales.

Bacon and eggs are a traditional breakfast throughout Europe, cockels and laverbread less so.

In south Wales the sands stretch the length of the Gower peninsula. This is the cockel shore, and the place of laver.

Laver is a soft purplish sea vegetable found around the coastlines of Britain and Ireland, picked from rocks at low tide.

It is thoroughly washed in two changes of water, drained, cooked and sold dried or fresh.


Laverbread Breakfast


400 g laver pulp
100 g oatmeal

8 slices smoked back bacon
4 pork sausages

Combine laver pulp and oatmeal, shape into 5 cm wide, 2 cm thick cakes.

Fry bacon, remove, allowing fat to drip into the frying pan, keep warm.

Bring heat up, wait until the bacon fat is starting to smoke, then fry the laver cakes, two minutes each side.

Serve with bacon, sausages and poached (or fried) eggs … And fresh cockles.

Of course without the laver pulp and oatmeal this is a difficult breakfast to make, so we recommend you take a trip to Wales, where the food culture is one of the hidden delights of Europe. More soon.

Note: Laverbread can be brought online.