BOOK | Fricot 2000

The Traditional Food Cultures of Anatolia, the Caucasus and Europe 

Indigenous Food Security
for the 21st Century

The jewel in the crown of the Fricot Project, Fricot 2000 is a different kind of food encyclopedia, themed on the issues of food security in the context of the use of local foods in traditional food. Fricot 2000 is an introduction to the popular, traditional dishes of Anatolia, the Caucasus and Europe. Formatted as an A to Z with sections that feature recipes grouped into categories, full page photos preface each alphabetical section. The majority of Fricot 2000 recipes were tested in Fricot experimental kitchens, where Friends of Fricot interpreted countless versions of the traditional foods of the diverse regions.

Introduction

The traditional culinary cultures of Anatolia, the Caucasus and Europe are rooted in regional produce and value-added products that are the consequence of generational improvisation, by those who understand why fresh, local ingredients are essential for food security. Every country is defined by the food of its regions and, most of the time, this is reflected in the popularity of specific traditional dishes.

What is different now, in the early 21st century, is a subtle revelation, that fresh produce has become popular because it is indigenous to specific regions. For countless centuries the wild plants and sea vegetables that grew wild along the Atlantic Fringe, such as angelica, dandelion, dulce, elderberry, meadowsweet, rowan, samphire, sea kale and wild garlic for example, framed the picture that described the food culture of the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Norway. That tradition faded during the 20th century and now it is coming back, as clever young chefs seek out local ingredients and traditional methods.

Further south-east in the North Sea toward the Baltic Sea, young herrings and mature eels form the basis for the traditional dishes known as Hamburger aalsuppe (eel soup) and Hamburger labskaus (fish and meat stew).

These days the eels are imported from the north of Ireland as eel stocks slowly recover across the world, making the soup expensive and exclusive, but the young herring, with its exclusive market and the conservationist approach of the fishers, is embedded in the local gastronomy.

The fish theme continues on Iberia’s Atlantic shore, around into the Mediterranean Sea, where dried cod still define a culture of salt and air drying that is thousands of years old in the traditional dishes known as brandada de bacalao (creamed cod in Barcelona), brandade de morue (puréed cod in Nice) and baccalà mantecato (whipped cod in Venice). Another food item that has become expensive, yet the popularity of bacalao has never been higher.

Around the coast from Collioure to Cetara, the tradition of preparing the little blue fish that become the anchovy of legend is juxtaposed with the tradition of preparing a fish sauce from fermented small fishes. Here is a fish sauce that is not oriental, and reunited with the strip pasta that made it famous thousands of years ago.

In the Messina Strait, much to the chagrin of conservationists, swordfish continue to contribute to the culinary tradition of Sicily and Italy, for a dish that symbolises the relationship the people have with the sea. Siciliana pesce spada (fried swordfish) is only rivalled throughout Italy by fritto misto cotto (the takeaway fried fish made with cuttlefish or squid, octopus, prawns, whitefish and sardines).

Further around the Mediterranean Sea into the Aegean Sea, the wild plants grown on the coastline near Bodrun in the south of Turkey reflect traditions that are as old as the hills above the shores.

And in the Black Sea the tradition of harvesting the little fish called hamsi shows no sign of being swamped by the fast-food culture of an increasingly globalised world. Here we have one of many culinary connections across the continent. In Turkey they make a dish called hamsi firinda with potatoes and small fish. In Norway they make a dish called anjovislåda with potatoes and small fish. The Turkish fish are genuine European anchovy, while the Norwegian fish are sprats, fat by comparison.

When hamsi meets rice a whole new food culture emerges, the pilaf or plov of Anatolia and the Caucasus countries, rice dishes containing numerous indigenous ingredients that manage to appear in Greece as pilaf, in Italy as risotto and in Spain as paella. Fish is generally the common denominator.

In the plains (steppes), valleys and mountains the produce that is associated with tradition is largely pot food, a stew or a soup.

The sausage culture throughout the continent owes its popularity to local beliefs that only local ingredients should be used, and this is seen in the artisanal sausages of Poland and Spain.

Then there is cheese, an ancient food that is still being made using techniques invented after the dawn of the first civilisations, more than 10,000 years ago.

And of course beef, lamb, pork and veal – meat that is prepared in so many different ways, from the barbecued meat culture of the Caucasus to the meatball culture of Anatolia and the pork presentations of most of Europe.

CHAPTERS (to be finalised)

… with a total of 2000 recipes plus variations, e.g. paella, plov, risotto.

Themes
  • Cook Book (11) — 1 recipe
  • Country (53) — 5 recipes
  • Food City (80) — 2 to 5 recipes
  • Food Festival (33) — 1 recipe
  • Food Market (11) — 2 to 3 recipes
  • Food Place (11) — 2 to 3 recipes
  • Food Theme (11) — 1 recipe
  • Ingredient (178) — 5 recipes
  • Region (68) — 5 recipes
  • Street Food (11) — 1 recipe
  • Themed Restaurant (11) — 2 to 5 recipes
Contents
A Book of Mediterranean Food							(cook book)
A Cookery Tale (Turkey)								(cook book)
A Tale of Markets									(food market)
A Taste of Ireland									(cook book)
Aberdeen											(food city)
Abruzzo											(food region)
Adana											(food city)
Adria												(food city) 
ALBANIA 										
Alkmaar (cheese) 									(food festival)
ALMOND 		
Amiens											(food city)
Antalya											(food region)
ANCHOVY 									
Andalusia 											(food region)
ANDORRA										
Anogyra Festivál Pastelioú (Pastelli-carob-sesame)				(food festival)
Antica Bottega del Vino								(themed restaurant)
Antwerp											(food city) 
APPLE / CIDER									
Apulia											(food region)
Aragón											(food region)
ARMENIA	
ARTICHOKE									
APRICOT										
ASPARAGUS										
Atlantic Fringe										(food region)
AUBERGINE | EGGPLANT						
AUSTRIA 		
Auvergne											(food region)
AVOCADO									
AZERBAIJAN 										 
Baku 											(food city) 
BALKANS
Balikesir (cheese)									(food city / food region)
Bantry											(food city) 
BARLEY 		
Basel (food city)
Basel | Bratwürst – sausage (street food)
BASIL 									
Basque Country / Pays Basque							(food region)
Bavaria											(food region)
BEANS										
Beaumont-the-Lomagne (garlic) 							(food festival)
BEEF											
BEER										
BEET											
BELARUS										
BELGIUM 										 
Belgrade											(food city) 
Bergen											(food city)
Berlin											(food city) 
Bern												(food city) 
BERRIES 
Bialowieza											(food region)
Blood Pudding / Blood Sausage							(food theme)
Bodrum											(food city)
Bologna											(food city) 
Bolzano / Bozen										(food city) 
Bordeaux											(food city)
Borghetto sul Mincio (love knots-stuffed pasta-tortellini) 			(food festival)
BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
Branitsa (banitsa-egg-yoghurt pastry) 						(food festival)
Bratislava											(food city)
BREAD
BREAM
Breganz											(food city)
Bremen including East Freisland							(food region)
Brescia											(food city) 
Brig												(food city) 
BRILL / TURBOT
Brittany											(food region) 
BROCCOLI 
Brussels											(food city) 
BRUSSELS SPROUT
Bucharest											(food city)
BUCKWHEAT
Budapest											(food city)
Budapest (goose) 									(food festival)
Budapest (Pörkölt-paprika stew) 							(food festival)
BUFFALO
BULGARIA
BULGUR / CRACKED WHEAT
Burgundy											(food region)
BUTTER 
BUTTERMILK
CABBAGE 
Cádiz | Tortillitas de Camarones – shrimp fritters 				(street food)
Cafe Life											(themed restaurant)
Café Romand										(themed restaurant)
Calabria											(food region)
CAPER
CAROB
CARP
CAPSICUM | CHILLI | PAPRIKA | PEPERONCINO | PEPPER | PIMENT
CARAWAY
CARDOON
Carlow 											(food market)
CARROT
Çatalhöyük											(food city)
Catalonia											(food region)
CATFISH / PANGASIUS
CAULIFLOWER
CAVIAR / ROE
CELERIAC / CELERY
CEREALS
Cetera											(food city)
CHARD / SWISS CHARD
CHEESE 
Cheese Grotto										(food place)
Cheminots											(themed restaurant)
CHERRIES 
CHESTNUT | MARRON 
CHICKEN
CHICKPEA
CHICORY / ENDIVE
CHOCOLATE 
Chowder 											(food theme)
COD | STOCKFISH (BACCALÀ)
COFFEE
Compendium Ferculorum (Poland)							(cook book)
Cool Cuisine (Iceland)									(cook book)
Copenhagen										(food city)
CORNSALAD | NÜSSLISALAT | VALERIANA
Cornwall											(food region)
Côte-d’Azur										(food region)
COURGETTE | ZUCCHINI
CRAB
CREAM
CRESS
Crete												(food region)
CROATIA
CUCUMBER
CULINARY OILS 
CURLY KALE 
CUTTLEFISH
CYPRUS
CZECH REPUBLIC
DENMARK
ENGLAND
ESTONIA
EUROPE
DAMSON | PRUNE 
DEER / VENISON
Dijon												(food city) 
DILL
Dolmama											(themed restaurant)
Domaine Bovy										(food place)
Domodossola										(food market)
DOUGH 
Dublin											(food city)
DUCK 
East Anglia											(food region)
EEL 
EGG 
Emilia Romagna										(food region)
English Food										(cook book)
Europe | roast chestnuts		 						(street food)
FAROE ISLANDS
Fäviken (Sweden)									(cook book)
FIG
FINLAND
FISH
Florence											(food city)
FLOUR AND SOURDOUGH
Fondue											(food theme)
Food Fairs and Festivals								(food place)
Food Myths										(food themes)
FRANCE
Fribourg Bénichon (Bricelet-waffle biscuit) 					(food festival)
FUNGI | MUSHROOMS 
Galicia											(food region)
GAME 
GARLIC 
Garmisch-Partenkirchen								(food city)
Gaziantep											(food region)
Geneva											(food city)
GEORGIA
GERMANY
Getaria (anchovies) 									(food festival)
Gdańsk											(food city)
GIBRALTAR
Glueckstadt (matjes-young herrings) 						(food festival)
GOOSE
Gothenburg										(food city)
GOURD | PUMPKIN | SQUASH
Grabels											(food market)
GRAPES / CURRANTS / RAISINS / SULTANAS 
GREECE
GROUPER
HADDOCK
HAKE 
HALIBUT
Hamburg											(food city)
HAZELNUT
HERBS
HERRING
Hessen											(food region)
Hıdrellez (pilaf) 										(food festival)
HONEY 
HORSE
HORSERADISH
HUNGARY
ICELAND 
Ilirska Bistrica										(food city)
Imgarr (strawberries) 									(food festival)
Innsbruck											(food city)
IRELAND
Istanbul											(food city)
Istanbul | Balik Ekmek - fish sandwich 						(street food)
Jerez												(food city)
JOHN DORY
Kaliningrad										(food region)
Karlovy Vary										(food city)
Kars												(food city)
Kaunas											(food city)
Kayseri											(food region)
Kobarid (Struklji-filled pastries) 							(food festival)
KOHLRABI
Koks												(themed restaurant / book)
Konstanz (onions) 									(food festival)
KOSOVO
Kraków											(food city)
Kurpie (honey) 										(food festival)
Lake Balaton										(food region)
Lake Maggiore										(food region)
Lake Ohrid											(food region)
Lake Skadar										(food region)
LAMB 
LANGOUSTINE
Larousse Gastronomique (France)							(cook book)
LATVIA
Latvia / Jāņi (caraway cheese) 							(food festival)
Lausanne											(food city)
Lazio												(food region)
Lectar Gingerbread House, Radovljica						(food place)
LEEK
LEGUMES 
Lemmenjoki / Norrbotten County							(food region)
LEMON 
LETTUCE
LIECHTENSTEIN
Liguria											(food region)
LIQUEUR
LIQUORICE
Limoges											(food city)
Lisbon											(food city)
LITHUANIA
LIVER
Ljubljana											(food city)
LOBSTER / CRAYFISH / CRAWFISH
Lofoten											(food place)
Lombardy											(food region)
Lorraine											(food region)
Lough Neagh										(food region)
LOVAGE
Lublin bread festival (Cebularz Lubelski-flatbread)				(food festival)
LUXEMBOURG
MACKEREL
MACEDONIA
Madeira Archipelago									(food region)
MAIZE | CORN
MALTA
Marchesi Bakery										(food place)
MARJORAM / OREGANO
Marseille											(food city)
Massif Central										(food region)
Mazovia											(food region)
Meatballs											(food theme)
MELON
Melton Mowbray										(food place)
Menemen											(food city)
Menton (lemons) 									(food festival)
Mersin											(food city)
Messina Strait										(food region)
Milan											(food city)
MILK
MINT
MOLASSES / TREACLE
MOLDOVA
MONACO
MONKFISH
MONTENEGRO
Moscow											(food city)
MULLET
MUSSEL
MUSTARD
Naples											(food city)
Neustadt an der Weinstrasse (grapes) 						(food festival)
NETHERLANDS
Normandy											(food region)
North Rhine-Westphalia								(food region)
NORWAY
Nouvelle-Aquitaine									(food region)
Novigrad (asparagus) 									(food festival)
Occitanie											(food region)
OCTOPUS 
OLIVE 
ONION 
ORANGE 
OYSTER
Out of the Blue										(themed restaurant)
Palermo											(food city)
Panelle / L‘oro di Pisa / Calentita - chickpea fritters				(street food)
Paris												(food city)
PARSLEY
PARSNIP
PARTRIDGE
PEA
PEACH
PEAR
PERSIMMON | KAKI
Petrovac (Pašticada-soured pot beef)						(food festival)
PHEASANT
Piedmont											(food region)
Pies												(food theme)
PIKE | PIKE-PERCH
PINE NUT
PISTACHIO
PLAICE
PLUM / GREENGAGE
Po Delta											(food region)
POLAND
Polente / Porridge									(food theme)
POMEGRANATE
Pomerania											(food region)
POPPY 
PORK
POTATO
PORTUGAL
Prague											(food city)
PRAWN / SHRIMP
Provence											(food region)
Puddings											(food theme)
Puglia											(food region)
Puigcerdà (Trinxat-bacon-cabbage-potato)					(food festival)
PURSLANE
Pyrénées											(food region)
Qarabağ Mətbəxi Karabakh Cuisine (Azerbiajan)				(cook book)
QUAIL
RABBIT
RADISH
Recco (focaccia-flatbread)								(food festival)
REINDEER
Reykjavik											(food city)
Rhineland											(food region)
RHUBARB
RICE
Riga												(food city)
Risotto											(food theme)
Riudoms (hazelnuts)									(food festival)
ROCKET | ARUGULA
ROMANIA
Romans-sur-Isere (Pogne-butter bread)						(food festival)
Rome											(food city)
ROOTS
ROSE
ROSEMARY
Rotterdam											(food city)
RUSSIA
RYE
Sardinia											(food region)
SAFFRON
SAGE
Saint Gallen Olma (St. Galler Bratwurst-white sausage)				(food festival)
Saint Lorenzo (gnocchi)								(food festival)
Saint Petersburg										(food city)
Salad Dressings										(food theme)
SALMON
Salpicons											(food theme)
SALSIFY
SAN MARINO
SARDINE
Sardinia											(food region)
Sauces											(food theme)
Sausages											(food theme)
Savoury Snacks (Mezes, Tapas)							(food theme)
Savoy / Haute Savoy									(food region)
SCALLOP
Science in the Kitchen and the Art of Eating Well (Italy)			(cook book)
Schlosspintl										(themed restaurant)
SCOTLAND
SEA VEGETABLES | SEAWEEDS
SERBIA
SESAME 
SEVILLE ORANGE
SHALLOT
Sicily												(food region)
Silesia											(food region)
Silk Road											(food place)
Sion												(food city)
Slivnitsa (cheese)										(food festival)
SLOVAKIA
SLOVENIA
Small Breads										(food theme)
SNAIL
Sofia												(food city)
SOLE / LEMON SOLE
SORREL
SPAIN
SPELT 
SPICES 
Spicy (Netherlands)									(cook book)
Spiez / Lake Thun									(food city)
SPINACH
SPRAT
SQUID 
Srbobran (sausages)									(food festival)
Stocks											(food theme)
Street Food											(food place)
Street Food Switzerland								(food place)
Street Markets										(food place)
Stuttgart											(food city)
Stromberg (plums)									(food festival)
SWEDEN
SWITZERLAND 
SWORDFISH
Szentes											(food region)
Taillé de Goumoens (sweet pastries)						(food festival)
TARRAGON
Thusis											(food city)
THYME
TOMATO
Tours												(food city)
Trentino											(food region)
Treviso											(food city)
Trabzon											(food city)
TRIPE
TROUT
TUNA
TURKEY | GUINEAFOWL 
TURKEY
TURNIP
Turin												(food city)
Tuscany											(food region)
UKRAINE
Umbria											(food region)
Vaduz											(food city)
Vaha												(themed restaurant)
Valais / Wallis										(food region)
Valencia											(food region)
Valle d'Aosta										(food region)
Valls-Gran Festa de la Calçotada							(food festival)
Valencia											(food region)
Vaud												(food region 
VEAL
Veneto											(food region)
Venice											(food city)
Verona											(food city)
Vevey											(food market)
Vienna											(food city)
Vigo												(food city)
Vilnius											(food city)
VINEGAR
VITAMINS
Vosges											(food region)
WALES 
WALNUT 
Warsaw											(food city)
WHEAT
WHITING
WILD PLANTS 
WINE 
Witzenhausen (red cherries)								(food festival)
WOODCOCK
Wrocław											(food city)
YOGHURT 
Zakopane											(food city)
Zweisimmen										(food city)
16 Art-Bar-Restaurant									(themed restaurant)
Secrets and Sources 
RECIPE LIST 

Country and Regional Fives
An Explanation

Selecting five iconic dishes that are representative of the food categories in each country or region will always be deeply personal and highly selective. The Danish government discovered this when they asked the nation to vote on favourite dishes. 

Therefore we have put a twist on each five-recipe section. The Fricot criteria remains. The foods are indigenous, popular and traditional, and are desired because they have a depth of flavour with taste and are place-specific.

Battered cod fillets and large potato chips formed what was once a very popular takeaway food in Britain and parts of Ireland. Generally known as fish and chips, it evolved to include other white fish fillets, such as plaice, and is now being made with hake. It is still thought of as a traditional dish, despite becoming a gourmet food. 

The real change is with chips. Always popular in Belgium and France (where they originated), chips are now part of the culture that involves kebab, shish (shashlyk) and shoarma (shawarma) meat. Yes you may still get your meat stuffed into pouch-bread but you will also be offered chips, especially in the low countries of Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and northern France.

In countries where traditions are shared the same dish is often popular, macaroni cheese for example, easily one of the iconic foods of Crete, Cyprus, Malta, Sardinia and Sicily. We have decided the include all the regional differences. The same criteria applies to the risotto dishes of Italy.

Cornmeal (polenta) is as popular in the Balkans as it is in Italy, and despite a move toward a diverse diet is still part of the food culture in Moldova and Romania.

Blood Pudding recipes criss-cross Europe, but which country would call it a national dish? Spain, perhaps! Think further north.

Stuffed cabbage rolls are the national dishes of all of northern Europe, most of central and eastern Europe.

Meatballs are among the favourite meal in every one of the countries that make up modern Europe, except Ireland, where the ancient traditional foods of the Celts have been replaced by the same ‘big house’ tradition of England, Scotland and Wales.

Traditional food is also festive food, and reflect religious traditions, Lent for example when deep-fried fat-rich pastries still feature prominently and numerous biscuits, cakes and breads indicate a dependency on dairy products. 

In countries where street food is part of the food culture so are breads, pastries and sausages, particularly in Germany and Switzerland. 

This brings us back to the issue of popular regional food. Can the meatloaf and spelt flour dumplings of southern Germany be called national German dishes? Probably not! Yet dumplings of different types are certainly among the national dishes of Austria, Italy, Slovenia and Switzerland.

Is bread a traditional food? It is, especially if it is part of the food festival culture, like the lavish flat bread of Armenia, the pouch bread of the Balkans, the open rye sandwich bread of Denmark, the bacon bread of Latvia, the bread-cake of Romania, the numerous bread rolls of Switzerland.

Desserts are a difficult choice, because the sweet layered pastries, particularly of eastern Europe, would fill any list.

What about soup? Onion soup may no longer be a national dish in France but the fermented vegetable and yoghurt soup of Turkey is certainly one.

Traditional food does not always translate as comfort food built with carbohydrates and fats. Butter, cream, lard and milk has been replaced in numerous recipes by kefir and yoghurt, olive oil and rapeseed oil and especially in small breads with puree and juice made from fruit.

Sourdough made with rye and mineral water is now a feature in bread making, to reduce the amount of bakers yeast.

Then there is fish again, the staple of coastal, lake and river communities – a tradition by itself. With controls on depleted fish, other species that were once popular are back in vogue, the aforementioned hake plus grouper, monkfish, octopus and pike.

It should be an act of expediency to present the top 10 or top 25 traditional dishes in each country and region but that would betray the principles of the Fricot Project, simply because popular does not always translate as traditional and regional or local, with so much imported produce and products available. 

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