The Meatball Story

Making homemade meat balls
The raw meatballs mix … this is for frikadeller


As old as the meat mincer, meatballs are ubiquitous throughout the continent. They were known to the Romans and probably originated with the Etruscans. Apicius recorded a recipe for meatballs in pork caul that included minced meat, crustless bread, wine, ground pepper, garum, myrtle berries, pine nuts and whole peppercorns.

Replace the wine with milk, add butter or oil for the garum, egg instead of the caul for binding and you have a meatball similar to one made 2500 years ago.

Their popularity comes from the easy availability of ingredients and the simple method of production.

The meatball is generally made with minced meat, breadcrumbs, egg, herbs, onion and seasoning, then fried, baked or boiled, and often finished in a sauce or soup.

Regional differences, cultural influences and variable techniques characterise the meatball.

In Poland, Ukraine and Russia the influence is the bulette, a recipe brought to Berlin in 1700 with the Huguenots. Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and western Germany share the same basic recipe.

In the Balkans bulgur or rice alters the texture, which is the result of double mincing, a technique also favoured by the Turks.

The countries of the Mediterranean have a schizophrenic attitude to meatballs. They are either light and simple with nothing more than an egg and a tablespoon of cheese to bind the meat or heavy and complicated with numerous combinations of grains, herbs, legumes, spices and vegetables to enrich the meat.

The Turks boast nearly 300 varieties of köfte, including çiğ köfte (raw meatball), which combines bulgur, onions, water, paprika, mint, parsley and lemon with beef.

Meatballs are among the national dishes in Albania, Bulgaria, Romania and Serbia.

Just don’t make the assumption that they should be ball-shaped. The Danish meatball, a combination of minced pork, flour, egg, onion and milk, resembles a burger.


500 g pork, minced
1 onion, chopped
1 egg
1 heaped tbsp of flour
Black pepper, ground
Vegetable oil
Butter, small piece

Combine mince, onions, egg, flour and seasoning. Mix thoroughly and add milk, little at a time. When the mixture makes a thack thack sound when you beat it, then it is the right consistency. It should be moist. Put in fridge for at least an hour.

Heat the oil in a pan and add butter. When the oil is warm, dip a big spoon (a tablespoon would suffice) in the mixture and form the frikadelles into an oval shape using the spoon and your hand. They should be more oval than round shaped.

After each frikadelle, dip the spoon in the hot oil so that the next frikadelle slips off the spoon into the pan.

Flatten the frikadeller slightly.

Fry gently until cooked though, about five minutes on each side. They should be still moist and spongy when served.

Danes serve frikadeller with potato salad and eat them cold on rye bread the next day.

Variations are more or less flour, and oatmeal or breadcrumbs.


The European Meatball


If there was such a dish as the European meatball, influenced by the diverse food cultures, it might be something like this.


1.75 kg beef and pork, minced
180 g Dijon mustard
175 g bread soaked in water
120 g Manchego, Parmigiano and Pecorino 
cheeses, grated 
40 g breadcrumbs
15 g 4-pepper
10 cloves garlic, crushed, chopped 
10 g Hungarian hot paprika
lemon zest (2 lemons)
5 sprigs marjoram, leaves chopped small
5 scallions, chopped small
5 sprigs thyme, leaves chopped small
7 g juniper berries, crushed
5 g salt
Sunflower oil, for frying


Combine the meat in a large bowl with the mustard and soaked bread, add seasonings and spices, berries and herbs, and zest.

Shape into small balls, half a finger in diameter.

Preheat oven to 180°C.

Spread breadcrumbs on a large plate, roll meatballs in crumbs, covering lightly.

Heat a thin film of oil in a large frying pan over a medium heat, gently brown meatballs a few at a time. Transfer to a baking tray.

Bake in oven for 20 minutes.


Meatball Combinations


minced beef/lamb, breadcrumbs/bread, egg, 
feta cheese, flour, garlic, mint, milk, 
olive oil, onion, oregano, parsley, 
sunflower oil, seasonings

BELGIUM Ballekes 
minced beef/pork, braised onion, 
white bread soaked in milk, 
egg, parsley, seasonings

CYPRUS Keftédes 
minced lamb/pork, potatoes, egg, 
onion, mint, parsley, vinegar, 

DENMARK Köttbullar 
minced beef/pork/veal, onion, egg, 
flour, milk

FINLAND Lihapullat 
minced beef, sour cream, onion, flour, 
egg, mustard, paprika, seasonings

FRANCE Attignole 
minced pork, pork fat, 
white bread soaked in milk, 
eggs and flour, onion, pepper, shallot

GEORGIA Abkhazura 
minced beef, pork, caul fat, vinegar, 
black pepper, garlic, onion, 
cayenne, coriander, fenugreek, 
salt, sumac

GERMANY Berliner Bulette 
minced beef and pork/veal, milk, egg, 
onion, bread soaked in milk/water, 
nutmeg, seasonings/bacon, caraway, 

GERMANY Gehacktesbällchen 
minced beef, onions, 
hard bread roll soaked in water, 
egg, seasonings

GREECE Keftédes 
minced beef/chicken/lamb/pork/veal, eggs, 
onions, bread soaked in water, flour, 
seasonings, parsley, mint/oregano, 

ITALY Polpette 
minced beef/veal, egg, cheese, breadcrumbs, 

minced beef/pork, bread roll soaked in water, 
onion, eggs, breadcrumbs, anchovies/mustard, 

NORWAY Kjøttkaker 
minced beef/chicken, egg, 
potato flour or starch, oats, onion, 
milk or water, ginger, nutmeg, seasonings

POLAND Pulpety 
minced beef/pork/veal/turkey, rice, semolina, 
onion, hard boiled egg, seasonings

ROMANI Perişoare 
double ground beef/lamb, rice, egg, onion, 
parsley, paprika, flour, seasonings/mashed beans

SPAIN Albóndigas 
minced pork, veal/beef, lamb, garlic, 
manchego cheese, scallions, thyme, seasonings

SWEDEN Köttbullar 
minced beef/pork/veal, onions, 
breadcrumbs soaked in milk, egg, parsley, 
pureed potato, seasonings

double ground beef/lamb, egg, onion, flour, 
red pepper paste, seasonings/bulgur, walnuts, 
paprika flakes, parsley


This is an abridged extract from Meatballs of Europe.



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